Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs on the southeastern portion of Long Island in the Bahamas. Populations are found near Clarence Town and Turtle Cove.
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Range Description

This species is known from the extreme southeastern Georgia state of the United States of America, southward through peninsular Florida (including the Florida Keys) and sporadically in the Bahamas where it occurs on Andros, Grand Bahama, Great Abaco, Long, and New Providence Islands. It has been collected in western Cuba, the Cayman Islands, and south-central Puerto Rico where one small population persists.
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Range Description

This species occurs in Jamaica, Western Cuba, and the North Central area of coastal Puerto Rico (forests of the Rio Abajo).
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Fla., Ga.; West Indies.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Stem subterranean, or leaf-bearing apex exposed. Leaves 2--10 dm; petiole unarmed; leaflets 6--17 cm × 2--18 mm, linear, often twisted, very stiff, dark glossy green, 7--23-veined; margins often revolute, entire or with small teeth to slight denticulations near apex. Pollen cones generally 2--5 per plant, narrowly cylindric, 5--16 cm, tapering slightly at apex. Seed cones cylindric-ellipsoid, 5--19 cm, blunt at apex; ovules 2 per sporophyll. Seeds drupelike, oblong to ovoid, somewhat angular, 1.5--2 cm, outer coat bright orange. 2 n = 16.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Zamia floridana A. de Candolle; Z. silvicola Small; Z. umbrosa Small
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species grows in sandy coastal thicket. Populations generally occur in areas of pure sand, in association with sea grape (Coccoloba sp.) Plants are found in limestone and sand about 91 metres from the sea. Two of the three populations are located in shallow depressions that are kept continually moist by seepage from the island's freshwater lens. There is usually no standing groundwater for at least half the year. One population is marginal around a deeper freshwater pond. This is a permanent pond. All populations receive direct sunlight. Plants have not been seen growing in semi- or full-shade situations.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitats of Z. integrifolia vary from open coastal areas and sand dunes to pinelands and closed canopy oak hammocks to tropical forest. This cycad is most commonly found in soil over limestone and in sand near sea level or in dry pinelands subjected to periodic wildfires.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species prefers grassland, ravines and open forest dominated by species of Pinus and Quercus. Plants occur on steep limestone hills and among limestone rocks.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Period of receptivity and maturation of seeds December--March. Hammocks, pine-oak woodlands, scrub, and shell mounds; 0--30m.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A4ac; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Stevenson, D.W.

Reviewer/s
Donaldson, J.S. & Bösenberg, J.D.

Contributor/s

Justification
Qualifies as Endangered (EN) based on small extent of occurrence (13 km²) and ongoing decline. Populations have declined by 40% over the past 50 years and there is continuing decline, estimated to >20% over the next generation so also qualifies as EN under criterion A.

History
  • 2003
    Near Threatened
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2003
    Near Threatened
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Stevenson, D.W.

Reviewer/s
Donaldson, J.S. & Bösenberg, J.D.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is abundant across its range but has declined substantially in parts of Florida over the past 90 years (estimated at 20%) and has therefore been assessed as Near Threatened (almost qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion A2).

History
  • 2003
    Near Threatened
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2003
    Near Threatened
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
C1

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Stevenson, D.W.

Reviewer/s
Donaldson, J.S. & Bösenberg, J.D.

Contributor/s

Justification
Classified as Vulnerable based on an estimated population size of 3,000 plants and ongoing decline of 10-20%.

History
  • 2003
    Vulnerable
    (IUCN 2003)
  • 2003
    Vulnerable
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Population

Population
This species consists of an extensive colony with many old plants, as well as a thriving understorey of seedlings. However, although at least five subpopulations were recorded 10 years ago, two of those groups have now disappeared as a result of forest clearing. Some of the others have declined due to trash dumping. There are probably other subpopulations in more remote locations.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Population

Population
It has been estimated that the population size of Z. integrifolia is in excess of 30,000 plants in the wild. The one population in western Cuba consists of 133 individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Population

Population
The populations that have been surveyed in western Cuba indicate that there are four documented subpopulations with 171 individuals. No other population information is available.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Two out of the three photographed subpopulations are roadside subpopulations with easy public access; they are in danger of being eliminated through road expansion, shifting cultivation, and indiscriminate garbage dumping. Forest clearing also poses a threat.
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Major Threats
Z. integrifolia has declined mainly due to habitat destruction for housing developments and agriculture. In the early 20th century, a large number were collected as part of a commercial starch industry.
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Major Threats
This species has been affected by habitat destruction as a result of road building and land clearance for agricultural practices. This species is very rare in the wild although quite common in cultivation. It may be extinct in Jamaica and is almost extinct in Puerto Rico as a result of habitat destruction and to some extent by over collection by commercial growers, rather than by cycad collectors.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES Appendices.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES Appendices. In Cuba, populations are present in National Park Guanahacabibes in the Pinar del Rio province and the Ecological Reserve Varahicacos in the Matanza province. In Puerto Rico, plants are found in the Punta Guaniquilla Natural Reserve near Cabo Rojo. In the Bahamas, plants are found in the Abaco National Park of Great Abaco Island. Plants also occurs in about 80 conservation areas in Florida, U.S.A., including the Everglades National Park.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES Appendices. Plants are found in the National Park Viñales and the protected area of Mil Cumbres in Cuba and also in both the Rió Abajo Forest Reserve and the Cambalache Natural Reserve of Puerto Rico. There are 26 plants in the National Botanical Garden of Cuba.
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Wikipedia

Zamia integrifolia

Zamia integrifolia is a small, tough, woody cycad native to the southeast United States (Florida, Georgia), the Bahamas, Cuba, Grand Cayman and possibly extinct in Puerto Rico and Haiti.

Zamia integrifolia produces a reddish seed cones with a distinct acuminate tip. The leaves are 20–100 cm long, with 5-30 pairs of leaflets (pinnae). Each leaflet is linear to lanceolate or oblong-obovate, 8–25 cm long and 0.5–2 cm broad, entire or with indistinct teeth at the tip. They are often revolute, with prickly petioles. It is similar in many respects to the closely related Zamia pumila, but that species differs in the more obvious toothing on the leaflets.[1]

This is a low-growing plant, with a trunk that grows to 3–25 cm high, but is often subterranean. Over time, it forms a multi-branched cluster, with a large, tuberous root system, which is actually an extension of the above-ground stems. The leaves can be completely lost during cold periods, with the plant lying dormant in its tuberous root system, allowing this cycad to be relatively cold hardy. The plant can survive up to USDA region 8b (this can be quite northern: for instance, Seattle is 8b). The stems and leaves will regenerate after the cold period subsides with full foliage [1][2]

Like other cycads, Zamia integrifolia is dioecious, having male or female plants. The male cones are cylindrical, growing to 5–16 cm long; they are often clustered. The female cones are elongate-ovoid and grow to 5–19 cm long and 4–6 cm in diameter.[1]

Common names[edit]

This plant has several common names. Two names, Florida arrowroot and wild sago, refer to the former commercial use of this species as the source of an edible starch. Coontie (or koonti) is derived from the Seminole Native American language conti hateka.

Ecology[edit]

Zamia integrifolia inhabits a variety of habitats with well-drained sands or sandy loam soils. It prefers filtered sunlight to partial shade. Populations are presently limited to Florida, southeastern Georgia, central Cuba and the Dominican Republic. It was also native in southern Puerto Rico and Haiti, but appears to have been extirpated from those areas due to intensive land use.

The Eumaeus atala butterfly is dependent on the coontie for its survival

Controversy has long existed over the classification of Zamia in Florida; at one extreme all the American populations have been included in a broadly defined Zamia pumila[3] and at the other several species have been recognized under various names (e.g., Z. augustifolia, Z. floridana, Z. silvicola, and Z. umbrosa). The Flora of North America treats all of the American populations as Z. integrifolia. Genetically, the differences between populations cannot be explained by habitat variability. Studies conducted by Ward[4] showed that five different Florida populations of Z. integrifolia with identical cultivation produced distinct leaf morphology, suggesting that there may be too much genetic diversity amongst these Florida Z. integrifolia, not to mention geographically isolated populations, to consider them a single species.

The plant has critical importance to the Eumaeus atala butterfly. The butterfly, thought extinct until recently, is dependent for its survival on the Zamia integrifolia, as well as several other species of Zamia. At the larval stage, the Eumaeus atala caterpillar exclusively eats the leaves of the coontie. A half dozen caterpillars can completely strip a coontie bare and a large coontie population is needed to sustain the Eumaeus atala population.

All parts of Zamia integrifolia are toxic to humans if eaten raw,[5] although Black Seminoles were known to strain[dubious ] it.[6] Preparation of edible starch from the roots requires complex processing.[7] All plant parts are poisonous to dogs and livestock.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Linnaeus, Carl von f. 1789. Hortus Kewensis 3: 478
  2. ^ Whitelock, L. M. (2002). The Cycads. Portland, OR: Timber Press.
  3. ^ Eckenwalder, J. E. 1980. Taxonomy of the West Indian cycads. J. Arnold Arboretum 61: 701-722.
  4. ^ Ward, D.B. (1978). Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida 5: 122-124.
  5. ^ "Coontie Zamia pumila (Zamia integrifolia)". eNature.com. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  6. ^ Kashif, Annette. "Africanisms Upon the Land: A Study of African Influenced Placenames of the USA," In Places of Cultural Memory: African Reflections on the American Landscape. Washington, DC: National Park Service, 2001
  7. ^ Green Deane. "Zamia Floridana: Making Toxins Edible". EatTheWeeds.com. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
  8. ^ "http://brevard.ifas.ufl.edu/Forms%20and%20Publications/PDF/plants%20poisonous%20to%20pets.pdf". University of Florida/Brevard County Extension. Retrieved 5 October 2011. 
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Zamia lucayana


Zamia lucayana is a species of plant in the Zamiaceae family. It is endemic to the Bahamas. It is threatened by habitat loss.

Source

From the New Modern Encyclopedia. Based on Edition by A.H. McDonald, B. L. ZAMIA, A genus of plants of the family Cycadaceae. In aspect the species partly resembles palms, and partly tree ferns. they are natives of tropical America, tropical Asia, the Cape of Good Hope, and Australia. The Florida Indians call the seeds of Z.pumila "coontie", and manufacture flour from the rhizomes. It grows in the everglades of Florida, and has large tubers of the shape and size of parsnips, which are though and gray on the outside but white.

J.S. Donaldson 2003 Zamia lucayana is incorrect. The spelling is Zamia Lucayano according to World Cat.

There is one book by Mary Jane Berman; Deborah M. Pearsall

PLANTS, PEOPLE,AND CULTURE IN PREHISTORIC CENTRAL BAHAMAS : A View from the Three Dog Site, an Early Lucayan Settlement on San Salvador Island, Bahamas.

Abstract

Paleoethnobotanical remains from the three Dog site (SS-21) an early Lucayan site located on San Salvador, Bahamas, are presented and compared to data from other prehistoric Caribbean sites. Flotation, in situ, and screen recovery (1/16", 1.58 mm ) revealed six taxa of fulewood and charred Sapotaceae seed fragments, Prelimanary SEM analysis of six chert microliths revealed possible evidence of the Caribbean ariod, Xanthosoma sp. (cocoyam, malanga, yaufia ) or Zamia sp. The presence of Sapotaceae and possible Xanthosoma sp. or Zamia sp in the archaeobotanical record can be attributed to a number of alternative explanations. The site's inhabitants may have transported these plants from their homelands and transplanted them to home gardens. An alternative view is that they exploited or managed wild representatives or created disturbed habitats that encouraged the spread of wild or culitivated forms. The pollen data from two Bahama cores, one from Andros, the other from San Salvador, reflect anthropogenic disturbance during the prehistoric occupational sequence. The increasing frequency of Sapolaceae pollen in the San Salvador sequence is consistent with the occurrence of Sapotaceae at the three Dog site. Finally, prevention and recovery-related issues are discussed. The study suggests that multiple means of data recovery must be employed to gain a more representative picture of prehistoric Caribbean plant use and floristic environment.


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Notes

Comments

Once common to locally abundant, Zamia integrifolia is becoming increasingly uncommon as its habitats are being destroyed. The species is now considered "endangered" in Florida. 

 The choice of specific epithet to use for our species follows the conclusion reached by D. W. Stevenson (1987).

Controversy has long existed over the classification of Zamia in Florida. Recent researchers, however, have concluded that only one species is present in the flora. The several binomials applied to our Zamia reflect variability in plant vigor, leaf shape, leaflet width, number of marginal teeth and veins per leaflet, and geographic distribution. Forms with wide leaflets---" Zamia umbrosa "---are restricted to coastal hammocks of northeastern Florida and southeastern Georgia and appear to be quite distinct from plants of the remainder of Florida--- Z . integrifolia and " Z . floridana ." Especially robust forms have been described as " Zamia silvicola ." Studies by D. B. Ward (n.d.) indicate that these features have a genetic basis, but formal recognition of these different phases as species does not lead to better understanding of the complex. The variants in Florida may have originated from introductions of divergent forms of Zamia from elsewhere. The starchy stems, after treatment to remove a poisonous principle, were a significant part of aboriginal diets, and the plants were presumably dispersed by aborigines.

Zamia angustifolia Jacquin, a species thought to be restricted to the Bahamas and eastern Cuba, was reported in southern Florida by J. K. Small (1933). No voucher specimens were cited or are known to exist. Small also reported Zamia pumila Linnaeus from Florida, although erroneously.

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