Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Range Description

Crataegus laevigata is native to Europe. It is also cultivated widely in temperate zones and is naturalised in North America (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2012). In Europe it occurs predominantly in Central Europe to the north Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Romania at elevations between 450 and 1,200 m (Castroviejo et al. 1998).
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Escaped cultivar reported growing on a sandy knoll in a marsh in Kalamazoo County, Michigan (Voss 1985).

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Midland hawthorn is a shrub or small tree found in ancient woodlands, borders of woodlands, old hedgerows and banks growing on clay soil. It is also found in open pastureland and associated with Oak and Beech trees. It is a lowland species and is shade tolerant (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora 2012, Castroviejo et al. 1998). The flowers are hermaphrodite and pollinated by midges (Plants for a Future 2012). Blackbirds, thrushes and finches nest in the branches and feed on the haws.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Anomoia purmunda feeds within fruit of Crataegus laevigata

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Crataegus laevigata

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora microspora is saprobic on twig of Crataegus laevigata

Foodplant / saprobe
widely gregarious but not very crowded, covered and very convex, irregularly erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora oxyacanthae is saprobic on dead hedge clippinng of Crataegus laevigata
Remarks: season: 2-3
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
not crowded, pustular to subdepressed, covered, then disc erumpent, dingy then blackish, plurilocular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora rubescens f. crataegi is saprobic on dead Crataegus laevigata

Foodplant / gall
aecium of Gymnosporangium clavariiforme causes gall of live, swollen petiole of Crataegus laevigata
Remarks: season: 7-9+
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
aecium of Gymnosporangium confusum causes gall of live fruit of Crataegus laevigata
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate twig of Crataegus laevigata
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous, scattered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta monogyna parasitises live leaf of Crataegus laevigata

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera clandestina var. clandestina parasitises Crataegus laevigata

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Crataegus laevigata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crataegus laevigata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Khela, S.

Reviewer/s
Bilz, M. & Leaman, D.J.

Contributor/s

Justification
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment:
Least Concern (LC)

This species is classified as Least Concern due to its widespread distribution, stable populations and no major known threats.
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Population

Population
In Ireland and many other regions, this species is extremely uncommon yet is common in its hybrid form (C. monogyna and C. x media). However it is not native in Ireland and was most likely introduced from England from commercial nurseries supplying hedge plants (Invasive Species Ireland 2012). It seems abundant everywhere else in its range.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats

The threats to this species are not known. The hybridization with other Crateagus species may be causing a decline in this species. Hawthorn populations, especially in the UK, consist of a mixture C. laevigata and C. monogyna to a greater extent than C. laevigata, which is a product of hybridization in the wild and plantation of the hybrid species in nurseries. This hybrid may be considered an invasive species as it is not native to the UK (Allen and Hatfield 2004).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions

There are no conservation measures in place. It is listed as Least Concern in Belgium (Van Landuyt et al. 2006), Denmark (NERI 2007), Germany (Ludwig and Schnittler 1996), Luxembourg (Colling 2005), Switzerland (Moser et al. 2002) and the UK (Cheffings and Farrell 2005).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Wikipedia

Crataegus laevigata

Crataegus laevigata, known as the midland hawthorn,[2] English hawthorn,[2] woodland hawthorn[2] or mayflower, is a species of hawthorn native to western and central Europe, from Great Britain (where it is uncommon, and largely confined to the Midlands) and Spain east to the Czech Republic and Hungary. It's also present in North Africa. The species name is sometimes spelled C. levigata,[3] but the original orthography is C. lævigata.[4][5]

It is a large shrub or small tree growing to 8 m (rarely to 12 m) tall, with a dense crown. The leaves are 2–6 cm long and 2–5 cm broad, with 2–3 shallow, forward-pointing lobes on each side of the leaf. The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in corymbs of 6–12, each flower with five white or pale pink petals and two or three styles, and are pollinated by midges. The fruit is a dark red pome 6–10 mm diameter, slightly broader than long, containing 2–3 nutlets.

Aubépine épineuse. Crataegus laevigata. Mahieddine Boumendjel

It is distinguished from the related common hawthorn, C. monogyna, in the leaves being only shallowly lobed, with forward-pointing lobes, and in the flowers having more than one style. However hybrids occur frequently.

Taxonomy[edit]

In the past, midland hawthorn was widely but incorrectly known by the name C. oxyacantha, a name that has now been rejected as being of uncertain application. In 1753 Linnaeus introduced the name C. oxyacantha for the single species of which he was aware, but described it in such a way that the name became used for various species, including both the midland and the common hawthorn. In 1775 Jacquin formally separated the common hawthorn, naming it C. monogyna,[6] and in 1946 Dandy showed that Linnaeus had actually observed a different plant, and this would be C. oxyacantha. However, by this time confusion over the true identity of C. oxyacantha was so great that Byatt proposed[7] that the name should be formally rejected as ambiguous, and this proposal was accepted by the International Botanical Congress,[8] although the name continues to be used informally.

The midland hawthorn was described botanically as a separate species as long ago as 1798 by Poiret, whose name Mespilus laevigata referred to this hawthorn. Poiret's name is reflected in the revised formal botanical name of midland hawthorn: Crataegus laevigata (Poir.) DC.

Cultivars[edit]

'François Rigaud' has yellow fruit.[9]

'Paul's Scarlet'[10] (double red flowers) and 'Rosea Flore Pleno'[11] (double pink flowers) have both gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. These cultivars are considered by taxonomists to be derived from hybrids between C. laevigata and C. monogyna, within the named hybrid species C. × media.[9]

See also[edit]

  • The hawthorn button-top gall on midland hawthorn, is caused by the dipteran gall-midge Dasineura crataegi.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Christensen, K.I. (1992). Revision of Crataegus sect. Crataegus and nothosect. Crataeguineae (Rosaceae-Maloideae) in the Old World. Systematic Botany Monographs. 35: 1–199.
  2. ^ a b c "USDA GRIN taxonomy". 
  3. ^ Gutermann, W. (2011). "Notulae nomenclaturales 41-45. (New names in Cruciata, Kali, and some small corrections)". Phyton - Annales Rei Botanicae 51 (1): 95–102. 
  4. ^ Poiret, J.L.M. (1798). "Néflier; Mespilus". In J.B.A.P.d.M. De Lamarck. Encyclopédie Méthodique. Botanique 4. Paris: H. Agasse. pp. 437–447. 
  5. ^ Christensen, K.I.; Talent, N. (2013). "Crataegus laevigata or C. levigata – a Paleographic Analysis". Phyton: Annales Rei Botanicae 52 (2): 195–201. 
  6. ^ Jacquin, N.J. 1775. Florae Austriacae sive Plantarum Selectarum in Austriæ archiducatu: sponte crescentium icones, ad vivum coloratæ, et descriptionibus, ac synonymis illustratæ.
  7. ^ Byatt, J. (1974). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 69: 15–20.
  8. ^ Brummitt, R. K. (1986). Taxon 35: 556–563.
  9. ^ a b Phipps, J.B.; O’Kennon, R.J.; Lance, R.W. 2003. Hawthorns and medlars. Royal Horticultural Society, Cambridge, U.K.
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Crataegus laevigata 'Paul's Scarlet'". Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Crataegus laevigata 'Rosea Flore Pleno'". Retrieved 20 July 2013. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: An Old World species occasionally escaped from cultivation in the United States (Voss, 1985).

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