Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Rose Family (Rosaceae). It is a large native shrub or small tree that grows three to ten feet high. Branches contain curved thorns 1-1.5 inches long. Leaves are generally broadest at or below the middle, shallow and sharply lobed, dark green and smooth to hairy. White flowers are produced in clusters. Fruits are broadest above the middle and red, orange, yellow, or green.

Distribution: Copenhagen hawthorn grows from Massachusetts to Michigan, south North Carolina, and Indiana.

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Alternative names

Entangled hawthorn

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Although Copenhagen hawthorn will succeed in partial shade and different soil types, it grows best in full sunlight and well-drained loamy soils. It will tolerate wet soils before becoming drought tolerant once established. It is also wind tolerant making it a good tree species in shelterbelt planting. It is tolerant of atmospheric pollution and performs well in urban settings.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Crataegus pallens Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969397
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Near Biltmore., Buncombe, North Carolina, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Beadle, C. D. 1901. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 27.
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Syntype for Crataegus pallens Beadle
Catalog Number: US 969398
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): ex herb. Biltmore
Year Collected: 1900
Locality: Near Biltmore., Buncombe, North Carolina, United States, North America
  • Syntype: Beadle, C. D. 1901. Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 27.
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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation from Seed or Grafting: Copenhagen hawthorn can be propagated by either seeds or grafting. Successful propagation using seeds requires acid scarification followed by warm stratification and prechilling. Seeds, whose numbers per lb. varies with species, are planted early in the fall, in drill rows eight to twelve inches apart and covered with 1/4 inch of soil. Seedlings must not be kept in the nursery longer than a year.

Containerized trees should be planted when they are no more than eight feet tall, in the fall or spring. Balled and burlapped trees should be planted in early spring.

Grafting on seedling stock of Crataegus oxyacantha or Crataegus monogyna is best carried out in the winter to early spring.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Lange's Hawthorn in Illinois

Crataegus intricata (Lange's Hawthorn)
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, other insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson. NOTE: Robertson was uncertain about the identity of this flowering shrub and referred to it as 'Crataegus coccincea?' in Flowers and Insects. This obsolete scientific name refers to several Crataegus spp. in North America. Among these, Crategus intricata is probably the best candidate because it has been found closer to Macoupin County, Illinois, where Robertson conducted his observations.)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada articulata sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus sn fq, Halictus ligatus sn, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn, Lasioglossum versatus sn, Lasioglossum zephyrus sn fq; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena crataegi sn fq, Andrena cressonii sn, Andrena dunningi sn cp fq, Andrena erythrogaster sn, Andrena hippotes sn, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn fq, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata sn cp fq, Andrena personata sn fq, Andrena sayi sn cp fq

Wasps
Tiphiidae: Tiphia letalis; Vespidae: Polistes fuscata fq

Flies
Stratiomyidae: Microchrysa polita; Syrphidae: Eristalinus aeneus, Eristalis dimidiatus, Helophilus fasciatus, Mallota bautias, Myolepta strigilata fq, Psilota buccata, Syrphus torvus, Toxomerus geminatus, Trichopsomyia apisaon; Empididae: Empis desiderata, Rhamphomyia priapulus, Rhamphomyia sordida; Bombyliidae: Bombylius fascipennis, Bombylius major; Conopidae: Myopa vesciculosa; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata; Sarcophagidae: Sarcophaga sinuata; Calliphoridae: Calliphora vicina, Cochliomyia macellaria, Cynomya cadaverina, Lucilia illustris, Phormia regina; Muscidae: Morellia micans, Neomyia cornicina fq

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Danaus plexippus, Vanessa virginiensis

Beetles
Cerambycidae: Molorchus bimaculatus fq icp; Chrysomelidae: Acalymma vittata; Coccinellidae: Cycloneda sanguinea, Hippodamia convergens; Oedemeridae: Asclera puncticollis; Scarabaeidae: Euphoria fulgida

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crataegus intricata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NH - Possibly Extirpated

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Threats

Pests and potential problems

Although insects and diseases seldom affect Copenhagen hawthorn, it is susceptible to fireblight, cedar-hawthorn rust, cedar-quince rust, leaf blight, fruit rot, and leaf spot.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Consult you local nurseries to choose the right cultivar for your specific landscape. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Pruning should be done in the winter or early spring in order to maintain a clear shoot leader on young trees and/or remove the weakest branches to allow more light to pass through. Suckers or stems arising from the roots should be removed when they become noticeable.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Erosion Control: Because it tolerates a wide variety of sites, it can be planted to stabilize banks, for shelterbelts, and for erosion control.

Timber: Although the wood is hard and strong, it has no commercial value except for tool handles and other small items.

Beautification: Excellent for environmental plantings including small specimen tree, shrub border.

Wildlife: It provides excellent food and cover for wildlife.

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Wikipedia

Crataegus intricata

Crataegus intricata is a species of hawthorn known by the common names Copenhagen hawthorn and thicket hawthorn. It is native to eastern Canada and the eastern United States. Its fruit are brown to red.[1]

References and external links[edit]

  1. ^ Lange, J.M.C. 1897. Revisio Specierum Generis Crataegi Imprimis Earum, Quae in Hortis Daniae Coluntur: Oversigt over de i Danmark Haardføre Arter af Hvidtyørn-Slaegten (Crataegus). Lehmanns & Stages Forlag, Copenhagen.


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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1994 checklist) includes Crataegus foetida here; Phipps (letter to M. Oldham, 1996) had recognized C. foetida separately and recommended a G4 rank for it, calling it "not uncommon in eastern US". LEM 29Feb96

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