Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Juncus bracteatus Buchenau:
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Juncus benghalensis Kunth:
Bhutan (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Gansu, Xizang, Yunnan [Sikkim].
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Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, Kashmir, Nepal, Sikkim].
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Distribution: Pakistan, Kashmir, N.W. Himalayas and Yunnan.
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Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), W. China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants perennial, 14--20 cm tall. Rhizome short. Stems 0.2--0.5 mm in diam. Cataphylls few. Basal and cauline leaves 2 or 3; leaf sheath reddish brown at base and margin, 1.5--2 cm, auricles obtuse, black-brown at margin; leaf blade linear, 2--3 cm, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal; head solitary, hemispheric, 1.1--1.3 cm in diam., usually 4- or 5-flowered; bracts usually 2, chestnut brown to dark brown; basal bract broadly ovate, ladlelike, much longer than head, apex tapered and elongate. Perianth segments whitish to yellowish, lanceolate, 5--6 mm, subequal, apex obtuse. Stamens 6, longer than perianth; filaments subequaling perianth; anthers shorter than filaments. Style long; stigmas short. Capsule chestnut brown, trigonous ovoid, 1-loculed, apex beaked. Seeds (immature) ovoid. Fl. Jul--Aug, fr. Aug--Sep.
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Description

A small, loosely tufted perennial, (5)7-15(2 5)cm tall, with short rootstock, covered with brownish sheaths; stem thin filiform, with usually 1, filiform leaf, usually shorter than the stem. Flowering head terminal, simple, capitate, 3-5(-7)- flowered, pale or whitish; lowest bract slightly to much exceeding the inflorescence, upto 4 cm long. Flowers c. 5 mm long, almost sessile; perianth segments almost equal, lanceolate-oblong, subacute, membranous. Stamens exserted, with c. 2 mm long, thin anthers. Capsules broadly ovoid or ellipsoid, c. 3 mm long with a beak c. half as long, brown, many-seeded; seeds hardly tailed at the ends.
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Elevation Range

2200-3500 m
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Description

Plants perennial, tufted, 6.5--25 cm tall. Rhizome filiform, short. Stems thin. Cataphylls absent to 2. Basal leaves 2 or 3, cauline leaf absent or 1; leaf sheath greenish to reddish, auricles well developed, purplish red, obtuse, 0.7--1.2 mm; leaf blade linear, 3--12 cm, apex acute. Inflorescences terminal; head solitary, 1--1.8 cm in diam., (2--)4--8(--11)-flowered; bracts 3--5, often purplish red, broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, apex acute; basal bract erect, leaflike, longer than head, 1--4 cm; other bracts subequaling head. Perianth segments straw-colored, lanceolate, 4--6 × 1.5--2 mm, membranous, apex obtuse. Stamens 6; filaments 5--6 mm; anthers 2.2--3.3 mm. Style 1.5--2 mm; stigmas 0.8--1 mm. Capsule chestnut brown at maturity, ovoid, 2.6--3 mm, 1-loculed, base narrowed, apex beaked; beak 0.8--1.5 mm; style persistent. Seeds spindlelike, ca. 1 mm, appendaged; appendages 2, white. Fl. Jul--Aug, fr. Aug--Sep.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Juncus sphenostemon Buchenau.
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Ecology

Habitat

Moist meadows in high mountains, wet places in ravines; 3100--4000 m.
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Rocky mountain slopes, wet meadows; 2200--4200 m.
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Notes

Comments

Some authors treat Juncus bracteatus as a synonym of J. benghalensis.
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Comments

Differs from Juncus leucanthus Don by its smaller size, whitish perianth segments, capsules not exserted and the lowest bract often much exceeding the flowering head. Juncus leucanthus seems to be confined from Sikkim Himalayas to Kumaon. Its elongated lowest bract and much longer, linear anthers easily distinguish it from Juncus membranaceus Don. It may also be confused with Juncus leucomelas Don but the presence of the cauline leaves and hardly tailed seeds will distinguish it.
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