Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Sulfur Cinquefoil has reasonably attractive flowers and foliage. The latter has some resemblance to the foliage of Cannabis sativa (Marijuana). However, Marijuana is usually a taller plant with very different flowers. Its leaflets are more elliptic and slender than those of Sulfur Cinquefoil. There are many kinds of Potentilla spp. (Cinquefoil species), both native and introduced, that are often difficult to distinguish. Sulfur Cinquefoil can be identified by its erect habit, palmate leaves with 5-7 leaflets, pale yellow petals that are longer than the sepals, and terminal clusters of flowers that are flat-headed. In contrast, other Cinquefoil species differ on one or more of the following characteristics
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This perennial plant is 1¼–2½' tall, branching frequently in the upper third of the plant. It is erect in habit, rather than sprawling or stoloniferous. The stems are terete and covered with long white hairs. The alternate leaves are palmately compound. The lower leaves have long hairy petioles and 5-7 leaflets, while the upper leaves are nearly sessile, smaller in size, and often have 3 leaflets. Each leaflet is up to 3½" long and ¾" across; the middle leaflets are larger in size than the side leaflets. Each leaflet is oblanceolate to elliptic and coarsely toothed. The upper stems terminate in flat-topped clusters of flowers. Each flower is about ½-¾" across, consisting of 5 pale yellow petals, 5 hairy green sepals, about 30 stamens with yellowish anthers, and a bright yellow receptacle in the middle with numerous pistils. The spreading petals are obcordate, while the triangular sepals are a little shorter than the petals. The blooming period usually occurs from early to mid-summer and lasts about a month. Each flower produces numerous dark brown seeds, which are somewhat flattened and finely ridged. The root system of a mature plant consists of a shallow crown with coarse fibrous roots; sometimes multiple stems develop from the crown. Reproduction is by seeds. Cultivation
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Sulfur Cinquefoil is a common plant that occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was accidentally introduced into North America from Eurasia. Habitats include limestone glades, pastures and abandoned fields, vacant lots, gravelly areas along railroads, compacted soil along grassy paths or dirt roads, and weedy meadows. This plant prefers disturbed open areas with alkaline soil.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

More info for the terms: cover, density, invasive species, presence

The following information on the origin, North American introduction, and spread of sulfur cinquefoil is based on reviews [60,70,91], unless otherwise cited.

Sulfur cinquefoil is native to the eastern Mediterranean region of Eurasia. It occurs sparsely in England, and occurs in central and southern Europe from central France and Germany to central Spain, Sicily and the Middle East. It is found in western and central Asia to approximately 100 E longitude, and south to Asia Minor and northern Iran. Sulfur cinquefoil also occurs in the mountains of North Africa [91]. More recent field surveys of western, central, and southeastern Europe did not locate sulfur cinquefoil in the upper Rhine valley, Alsace, the Swiss Jura; the alpine regions of Switzerland, Italy, and France; or in eastern Austria, southern Hungary, and northern Romania, although these areas have been listed as within its distribution. The surveys did locate sulfur cinquefoil in Macedonia, northern Greece, western Turkey and Bulgaria [39].

The exact time and place of the original introduction of sulfur cinquefoil to North America is not known. The 1st collection of sulfur cinquefoil in North America was made sometime before 1900 in Ontario. In 1950 its reported distribution was from Newfoundland and Nova Scotia to Ontario, with scattered populations in southern British Columbia, and rapidly spreading. By this time, sulfur cinquefoil was also established in the northeastern U.S. and the Great Lakes region [91]. The first known collection in western North America was on western Vancouver Island in 1914. The earliest record of sulfur cinquefoil in the Columbia River Basin was in Idaho in 1934 [70]. By 1940 sulfur cinquefoil had also been identified in Washington [22].

In North America, sulfur cinquefoil occurs from the eastern coast of Canada and the northeastern seaboard of the U.S. to the Pacific coast of British Columbia, Washington, and Oregon. It is not found north of 53 N latitude. Heavy infestations occur in southern Ontario, Quebec, southern interior British Columbia, the Great Lake states, Montana, Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Many federal wilderness areas surveyed in the Rocky Mountain region report the presence of sulfur cinquefoil [55]. Scattered populations of sulfur cinquefoil occur in Manitoba, along the Pacific coast from British Columbia south into California [34,60,91], and west into northwestern Nevada [41] and Colorado [90]. In the Great Plains, sulfur cinquefoil is infrequent to locally common in disturbed areas and less frequent in prairies [28]. It extends south into Florida [94] and Texas [18]. The Plants Database provides a distribution map for sulfur cinquefoil.

Powell [60] describes the need for an accurate, comprehensive inventory of sulfur cinquefoil in British Columbia. He suggests inventories at a scale relevant to ultimate management units, that include geographic location, plant community type, seral stage, site characteristics, and size, density, and canopy cover of sulfur cinquefoil infestations. Inventories of this nature would help to establish ecological limits and to define potential distributions of sulfur cinquefoil and other nonnative, invasive species in North America. This information could provide objective direction for the nature, degree, and location of management activities. Inventory information can also serve as a baseline for monitoring population dynamics, and the effectiveness of various management activities [60].

The ecological amplitude of sulfur cinquefoil must be determined to confirm which ecosystems and habitat types are suitable to its establishment and persistence, and to define its distribution and potential areas of impact [60].

The following lists are meant to provide some idea of where sulfur cinquefoil might occur or be invasive, but provide no certainty without the aforementioned inventory information.

  • 18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 22. Forcella, Frank; Harvey, Stephen J. 1981. New and exotic weeds of Montana. II: Migration and distribution of 100 alien weeds in northwestern USA, 1881-1980. Cooperative Agreement No. 12-6-5-2383: Noxious and exotic weed survey of Montana. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 117 p. [44986]
  • 28. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 34. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 39. Jordan, T.; Tosevski, I. 1993. Field survey for potential control agents of sulfur cinquefoil, Potentilla recta. In: International Institute of Biological Control annual report. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: International Institute of Biological Control: 41. [44983]
  • 41. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 55. Marler, Marilyn. 2000. A survey of exotic plants in federal wilderness areas. In: Cole, David N.; McCool, Stephen F.; Borrie, William T.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer, comps. Wilderness science in a time of change conference--Volume 5: wilderness ecosystems, threats, and management; 1999 May 23-27; Missoula, MT. Proceedings RMRS-P-15-VOL-5. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 318-327. [40580]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 90. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]
  • 94. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

States or Provinces

(key to state/province abbreviations)
UNITED STATES
AL AR CA CO CT DE FL GA ID IL
IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN
MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NY NC ND
OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX VT
VA WA WV WI WY DC

CANADA
AB BC MB NB NF NS ON PE PQ SK

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regional Distribution in the Western United States

More info on this topic.

This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

BLM PHYSIOGRAPHIC REGIONS [10]:

1 Northern Pacific Border

2 Cascade Mountains

3 Southern Pacific Border

4 Sierra Mountains

5 Columbia Plateau

8 Northern Rocky Mountains

9 Middle Rocky Mountains

10 Wyoming Basin

13 Rocky Mountain Piedmont

14 Great Plains

16 Upper Missouri Basin and Broken Lands
  • 10. Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals, reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p. [434]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Xinjiang [C and SW Asia, Europe].
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: caudex, cover, density, forb

Correct identification of sulfur cinquefoil is important if control strategies are planned, because sulfur cinquefoil may be confused with native cinquefoils, particularly slender cinquefoil (Potentilla gracilis). Seven varieties of slender cinquefoil have been identified [35], further complicating identification. The following contrasting characteristics are suggested to help separate sulfur cinquefoil from slender cinquefoil [70]:

Slender cinquefoil Sulfur cinquefoil
short, spreading hairs on leafstalk and stem longer hairs perpendicular to leafstalk and stem
few stem leaves; mostly basal leaves numerous stem leaves; fewer basal leaves
smooth seed coat net-like pattern on seed coat
most have a dense, woolly underleaf sparse, stiff hairs; both sides of leaf are similar
short rhizomes woody taproot with short branch roots
flowers brighter yellow flowers paler yellow
leaves are green to gray leaves more yellowish
about 20 stamens 25 or more stamens
leaflet serrations sometimes deep leaflet serrations halfway to mid-vein

The following description of sulfur cinquefoil presents characteristics that may be relevant to fire ecology, and is based on descriptions from several sources [6,20,28,47,91], unless otherwise cited. It is not meant for identification. Identification guidelines, line drawings, and color photos are available (e.g. [66]). Keys for identification are also available (e.g. [28,47]).

Sulfur cinquefoil is a perennial forb with a short caudex attached to a woody taproot. Sulfur cinquefoil roots are persistent and may have some lateral growth, but have no rhizomes [68]. Sulfur cinquefoil has 1 to several slender, erect, hairy stems that are 8 to 30 inches (20-80 cm) tall. The upper portion of the stem may be branched. Sulfur cinquefoil stems bear many palmately compound leaves with 5 to 9 leaflets that are 1 to 3 inches (3-8 cm) long and 0.2 to 1 inch (0.5-2.5 cm) wide, and covered on both sides with sparse, stiff hairs. Lower leaves have long petioles and upper leaves have shorter or no petioles and fewer leaflets. Sulfur cinquefoil flowers are many, and are borne in open, branched, flat-topped inflorescences above the principal foliage. Flowers are 0.6 to 1 inch (1.5-2.5 cm) wide with 5 petals. Sulfur cinquefoil fruits are achenes, about1 mm long, with a slightly winged margin [6,20,28,47,91].

There are no reports in the literature of sulfur cinquefoil growing in monospecific stands. It has been recorded at densities up to 39 flowering plants per m2 at a site in Michigan [91], and up to 75% canopy cover on a site in Montana [69]. Density of sulfur cinquefoil in a field left fallow for 10 years in Michigan was 2.67 flowering stems per m2 [91].

Sulfur cinquefoil forms relatively clear annual growth rings in the root xylem that can be used to estimate plant age [17].

According to Werner and Soule [91], aging of sulfur cinquefoil by counting rings in the taproot is not possible after about 6 years because the central core of the root decomposes. Estimates based, instead, on total diameter of the root ring of plants in Michigan indicate that 20-year-old plants are not unusual [91]. Using this method to estimate the age of herbaria specimens, it appears most sulfur cinquefoil plants collected in British Columbia in the last 20 years are less than 6 years old [60].

Sulfur cinquefoil has no known mycorrhizal associations [60].

  • 17. Dietz, Hansjorg; Schweingruber, Fritz Hans. 2002. Annual rings in native and introduced forbs of lower Michigan, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Botany. 80: 642-649. [42176]
  • 20. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 28. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 35. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 47. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 6. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 68. Rice, Peter M. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: a new threat to biological diversity. Western Wildlands. 17(2): 34-40. [16161]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

Herbs perennial. Roots terete. Flowering stems erect, 30–40 cm tall, together with petioles white villous, rarely glabrescent. Radical leaves usually withered at anthesis; stipules tinged brown, membranous, margin white villous; leaf blade palmately 5-foliolate; cauline leaves: stipules green, herbaceous, abaxially appressed villous, margin entire, apex acuminate; petiole gradually shorter higher up stem, almost absent on uppermost leaves; leaf blade 5–7-foliolate; leaflets obovate-lanceolate, 2–5 × 0.5–1.5 cm, abaxially white villous, more densely so on veins, adaxially appressed white villous or glabrescent, base cuneate, margin acutely or obtusely incised serrate, apex obtuse. Inflorescence terminal, compact, corymbose-cymose. Flowers ca. 1.5 cm in diam.; pedicel 0.5–1 cm, white villous and white pubescent. Sepals ovate-oblong, apex acuminate; epicalyx segments lanceolate, nearly equaling sepals, abaxially white villous, apex acuminate. Petals yellow, obovate-elliptic, nearly equaling sepals, apex emarginate or subrounded. Style slightly thickened at base; stigma not dilated. Achenes rugose. Fl. and fr. Jul–Aug.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The non-native Sulfur Cinquefoil is a common plant that occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map). It was accidentally introduced into North America from Eurasia. Habitats include limestone glades, pastures and abandoned fields, vacant lots, gravelly areas along railroads, compacted soil along grassy paths or dirt roads, and weedy meadows. This plant prefers disturbed open areas with alkaline soil.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: competition, cover, xeric

Little information is available regarding site characteristics that are suitable to sulfur cinquefoil's establishment and persistence. A detailed inventory could facilitate determination of the ecological amplitude of sulfur cinquefoil and identify potential areas of impact in North America [60]. According to Rice [69,70], sulfur cinquefoil has a wide ecological amplitude, occurring in a wide range of habitat types, soil textures, aspects, and elevations.

General climate: In its native habitats in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, sulfur cinquefoil grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate (Schaffner and Tosevski 1994, as cited by Powell [60]). In Canada, sulfur cinquefoil is found where less than 1% of the minimum daily temperatures fall below 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 °C) in May and less than 5% fall below 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 °C) in July [91]. Sulfur cinquefoil flourishes in Montana's semiarid climate in areas similar to those inhabited by spotted knapweed [68,69].

Soil characteristics, soil moisture, precipitation: Sulfur cinquefoil does not seem to be limited by soil texture. In Montana, it is found on sites with all soil textures except pure silt, but grows mainly on sandy-clay loam soils [69], with dense growth reported on clay soils [68]. Sulfur cinquefoil occurred on a seasonal wetland site in Montana that had coarse textured, cobbly soils [69]. In Kansas, sulfur cinquefoil is often found in rocky or sandy soil [6]. Sulfur cinquefoil is usually found in dry soil in the northeastern U.S. [25], and along the eastern coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina [20]. According to a review by Werner and Soule [91], sulfur cinquefoil is most common on limey and stony soils in eastern North America.

In Canada, the distribution of sulfur cinquefoil corresponds to those areas with 30 to 50 inches (750-1,250 mm) mean annual precipitation [91]. In Nevada, sulfur cinquefoil occurs only in the northwestern part of the state on wet or damp soil around lakes, ponds, streams, and ditches [41]. At Dancing Prairie Preserve in northwestern Montana, where mean annual precipitation is 17 inches (438 mm), sulfur cinquefoil populations appear to be more variable and more likely to dramatically increase under favorable conditions on more xeric sites, while mesic-site populations are smaller, yet more stable [52].

Aspect, elevation, latitude/longitude: Sulfur cinquefoil is found from sea level to over 7,500 feet (2,300 m) in its native habitats in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (Schaffner and Tosevski 1994, as cited by Powell [60]). In Montana, sulfur cinquefoil infestations are found at all aspects and at low to mid-elevations, up to 6,580 feet (2,000 m) [70]. In California, sulfur cinquefoil is found between 500 and 5000 feet (150-1500 m) [34]. In Nevada it is found between 4,800 and 6,000 feet (1,400-1,800 m) [41]. Sulfur cinquefoil is found mainly below 50° N in Canada [91].

Evidence of disturbance: Disturbed sites are particularly susceptible to early colonization and rapid dominance by sulfur cinquefoil [70]. Sulfur cinquefoil is reported to occur in disturbed areas in California [34], Nova Scotia [72], the Great Plains [6,28], Texas [18], Montana [47], the northeastern U.S. [25], Illinois [57], the Carolinas [62], along the coast from North Carolina to Newfoundland [20], West Virginia [82], and Michigan [88]. Disturbed areas are typically described as "weedy areas," "waste places," roadsides, railroads, clearings, pastures, old fields, and gravel pits.

Sulfur cinquefoil populations in the northwestern U.S. and British Columbia are often associated with roadsides, abandoned agricultural fields, logged areas, areas with heavy livestock grazing, "waste places," and other sites associated with vegetation and/or soil disturbance [60,66,68,91]. An exclosure designed to illustrate effects of livestock and wildlife grazing by excluding elk, deer, and cattle was built in southeastern British Columbia in 1951. No sulfur cinquefoil was recorded in the area until 1991, and then it occurred only in the grazed area outside the exclosure [73]. Sulfur cinquefoil is, however, reported to rapidly invade bluebunch wheatgrass rangeland "that is in good condition and properly grazed" [37,66]; and, while it is most common and spreads more rapidly on disturbed sites on the Dancing Prairie Preserve in northwestern Montana, it is also capable of invading relatively undisturbed sites [52].

On another grassland site in western Montana, dominated by bluebunch wheatgrass and Idaho fescue on warm slopes and rough fescue on cool slopes, a study to monitor changes in species composition under the influence of cattle grazing was initiated in 1985. Canopy cover of sulfur cinquefoil increased on 2 of 3 warm slope plots and on 2 of 3 cool slope plots between 1985 and 1996. Canopy cover of sulfur cinquefoil is negatively associated with canopy cover of rough fescue and total grass. This relationship reflects the fact that sulfur cinquefoil is generally more common on more xeric sites where grass cover is less abundant. Abundance of sulfur cinquefoil also appeared to be associated with pocket gopher burrowing on 2 transects. The author suggests that, because little of the variation in sulfur cinquefoil abundance at the microplot level was explained by grass cover, other unmeasured factors, such as proximity and productivity of seed sources, may have more effect on sulfur cinquefoil cover than competition with grass. It is also not possible to determine whether the decline in grass cover is caused by grazing or by an increase in sulfur cinquefoil at this site [50].

  • 18. Diggs, George M., Jr.; Lipscomb, Barney L.; O'Kennon, Robert J. 1999. Illustrated flora of north-central Texas. Sida Botanical Miscellany No. 16. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 1626 p. [35698]
  • 20. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 25. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 28. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 34. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 37. Jarecki, Chuck. 1990. Range weeds and ranch management. In: Roche, Ben F.; Roche, Cindy Talbott, eds. Range weeds revisited: Proceedings of a symposium: A 1989 Pacific Northwest range management short course; 1989 January 24-26; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Cooperative Extension: 15-19. [14828]
  • 41. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 47. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 50. Lesica, Peter. 1997. Monitoring native grasslands and the invasion of sulphur cinquefoil in the Valley View Hills, Lake County, Montana. 1996 Progress Report. Helena, MT: The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [45284]
  • 52. Lesica, Peter. 2002. Demography of Potentilla recta at Dancing Prairie Preserve, Lincoln County, Montana. Progress Report. Helena, MT: The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [45124]
  • 57. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 6. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 62. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 68. Rice, Peter M. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: a new threat to biological diversity. Western Wildlands. 17(2): 34-40. [16161]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 72. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 73. Ross, Timothy J.; Wikeem, Brian M. 2002. What can long-term range reference areas tell us?: Here's an analysis of fifty years of plant succession in the Rocky Mountain Trench. Rangelands. 24(6): 21-27. [44717]
  • 82. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 88. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the term: natural

Sulfur cinquefoil occupies a wide variety of habitats in its native range in
southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, from marine shorelines to
pine-dominated forests, and is most common on hillsides in grass- or
shrub-dominated communities (Schaffner and Tosevski 1994, as cited by Powell
[60]). Surveys in parts of western, central and southeastern Europe located sulfur
cinquefoil mainly in pine-forest clearings and forest borders. Sulfur cinquefoil
occurred in open grassland vegetation only in Bulgaria [39].

Sulfur cinquefoil populations in North America are commonly associated with roadsides,
vegetation disturbance, abandoned agricultural fields, and "waste areas" [60,70,91].
According to Rice [70], sulfur cinquefoil can also invade "native plant
communities that are remote from any apparent human disturbance," and is now
common in natural grasslands, "shrubby areas," and open-canopy forests in the
northwestern U.S. [66,70].

Rice [69] conducted a summary analysis of ecological and management
data for 85 sites infested with sulfur cinquefoil in Montana. Sulfur cinquefoil was
identified in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga
menziesii var. glauca), spruce (Picea spp.), grand fir (Abies
grandis), subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa), western redcedar (Thuja
plicata), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla), antelope bitterbrush
(Purshia tridentata), skunkbush sumac (Rhus trilobata),
western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii), bluebunch wheatgrass
(Pseudoroegneria spicata), Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis), rough fescue
(F. altaica), and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) communities. The majority
of these sites had other nonnative invasive plants present, as follows:

Associated nonnative speciesPercentage of 85 sites
spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) 60
Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica)5
common St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforatum)13
leafy spurge (Euphorbia
esula)
2
field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis)1
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)11
diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)5
whitetop (Cardaria spp.)2


Of the 27 species of cinquefoil found in Montana, 6 native cinquefoils (shrubby cinquefoil
(Dasiphora floribunda), tall cinquefoil (P. arguta), sticky cinquefoil (P.
glandulosa), slender cinquefoil (P. gracilis), horse cinquefoil (P. hippiana), and
Pennsylvania cinquefoil (P. pennsylvanica)) and 1 nonnative cinquefoil, (silver cinquefoil
(P. argentea)) occurred with sulfur cinquefoil on 1 or more of the 85 sites studied [69].

In British Columbia, sulfur cinquefoil is most commonly found in bunchgrass,
ponderosa pine, interior Douglas-fir, and coastal Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var.
menziesii) biogeoclimatic zones. Sulfur cinquefoil is a transient component of dry subzones
of interior cedar-hemlock and coastal western hemlock biogeoclimatic zones. Sulfur cinquefoil is
also commonly associated with diffuse knapweed populations in British Columbia [60].

In Michigan, Werner and Soule [91] found sulfur cinquefoil occasionally in wood margins,
but not under forest canopies. It is sometimes found invading dry, open woods such as aspen (Populus
spp.) [88]. Sulfur cinquefoil may be found in fallow fields with the following
plants: aster (Symphyotrichum spp.), staghorn sumac (R. typhina),
western yarrow (Achillea millefolium), Queen Anne's lace (Daucus carota),
Canada bluegrass (Poa compressa), Norwegian cinquefoil (Potentilla norvegica),
eastern daisy fleabane (Erigeron annuus), garden yellowrocket (Barbarea vulgaris),
silvery cinquefoil, smooth brome (Bromus inermis), and annual ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) [91].

Sulfur cinquefoil is also found on eastern Minnesota prairie sites [64].
  • 39. Jordan, T.; Tosevski, I. 1993. Field survey for potential control agents of sulfur cinquefoil, Potentilla recta. In: International Institute of Biological Control annual report. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: International Institute of Biological Control: 41. [44983]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 64. Reed, Catherine C. 1995. Species richness of insects on prairie flowers in southeastern Minnesota. In: Hartnett, David C., ed. Prairie biodiversity: Proceedings, 14th North American prairie conference; 1994 July 12-16; Manhattan, KS. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University: 103-115. [28243]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 88. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Rangeland Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following Rangeland Cover Types (as classified by the Society for Range Management, SRM):

More info for the term: cover

SRM (RANGELAND) COVER TYPES [77]:

101 Bluebunch wheatgrass

102 Idaho fescue

104 Antelope bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

105 Antelope bitterbrush-Idaho fescue

107 Western juniper/big sagebrush/bluebunch wheatgrass

109 Ponderosa pine shrubland

110 Ponderosa pine-grassland

214 Coastal prairie

215 Valley grassland

301 Bluebunch wheatgrass-blue grama

302 Bluebunch wheatgrass-Sandberg bluegrass

303 Bluebunch wheatgrass-western wheatgrass

304 Idaho fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass

305 Idaho fescue-Richardson needlegrass

306 Idaho fescue-slender wheatgrass

307 Idaho fescue-threadleaf sedge

309 Idaho fescue-western wheatgrass

310 Needle-and-thread-blue grama

311 Rough fescue-bluebunch wheatgrass

312 Rough fescue-Idaho fescue

314 Big sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

315 Big sagebrush-Idaho fescue

316 Big sagebrush-rough fescue

317 Bitterbrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

318 Bitterbrush-Idaho fescue

319 Bitterbrush-rough fescue

320 Black sagebrush-bluebunch wheatgrass

321 Black sagebrush-Idaho fescue

323 Shrubby cinquefoil-rough fescue

324 Threetip sagebrush-Idaho fescue

409 Tall forb

411 Aspen woodland

412 Juniper-pinyon woodland

422 Riparian

601 Bluestem prairie

602 Bluestem-prairie sandreed

603 Prairie sandreed-needlegrass

604 Bluestem-grama prairie

605 Sandsage prairie

606 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

607 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

608 Wheatgrass-grama-needlegrass

609 Wheatgrass-grama

610 Wheatgrass

611 Blue grama-buffalo grass

612 Sagebrush-grass

613 Fescue grassland

614 Crested wheatgrass

615 Wheatgrass-saltgrass-grama

709 Bluestem-grama

722 Sand sagebrush-mixed prairie

723 Sea oats

805 Riparian
  • 77. Shiflet, Thomas N., ed. 1994. Rangeland cover types of the United States. Denver, CO: Society for Range Management. 152 p. [23362]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Cover Types

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

More info for the term: cover

SAF COVER TYPES [21]:

1 Jack pine

14 Northern pin oak

15 Red pine

16 Aspen

20 White pine-northern red oak-red maple

21 Eastern white pine

39 Black ash-American elm-red maple

42 Bur oak

46 Eastern redcedar

50 Black locust

63 Cottonwood

78 Virginia pine-oak

79 Virginia pine

107 White spruce

201 White spruce

206 Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir

210 Interior Douglas-fir

212 Western larch

213 Grand fir

215 Western white pine

217 Aspen

220 Rocky Mountain juniper

224 Western hemlock

227 Western redcedar-western hemlock

228 Western redcedar

229 Pacific Douglas-fir

235 Cottonwood-willow

237 Interior ponderosa pine

238 Western juniper

244 Pacific ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir

245 Pacific ponderosa pine

251 White spruce-aspen
  • 21. Eyre, F. H., ed. 1980. Forest cover types of the United States and Canada. Washington, DC: Society of American Foresters. 148 p. [905]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Plant Associations

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: shrub

KUCHLER [44] PLANT ASSOCIATIONS:


K005 Mixed conifer forest

K010 Ponderosa shrub forest

K011 Western ponderosa forest

K012 Douglas-fir forest

K013 Cedar-hemlock-pine forest

K014 Grand fir-Douglas-fir forest

K015 Western spruce-fir forest

K016 Eastern ponderosa forest

K017 Black Hills pine forest

K024 Juniper steppe woodland

K048 California steppe

K050 Fescue-wheatgrass

K051 Wheatgrass-bluegrass

K055 Sagebrush steppe

K056 Wheatgrass-needlegrass shrubsteppe

K063 Foothills prairie

K064 Grama-needlegrass-wheatgrass

K066 Wheatgrass-needlegrass

K067 Wheatgrass-bluestem-needlegrass

K068 Wheatgrass-grama-buffalo grass

K069 Bluestem-grama prairie

K070 Sandsage-bluestem prairie

K074 Bluestem prairie

K075 Nebraska Sandhills prairie

K081 Oak savanna

K082 Mosaic of K074 and K100

K083 Cedar glades

K093 Great Lakes spruce-fir forest

K095 Great Lakes pine forest

K096 Northeastern spruce-fir forest

K098 Northern floodplain forest

K100 Oak-hickory forest

K101 Elm-ash forest

K107 Northern hardwoods-fir forest

K111 Oak-hickory-pine
  • 44. Kuchler, A. W. 1964. United States [Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States]. Special Publication No. 36. New York: American Geographical Society. 1:3,168,000; colored. [3455]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat: Ecosystem

More info on this topic.

This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

ECOSYSTEMS [24]:

FRES10 White-red-jack pine

FRES11 Spruce-fir

FRES13 Loblolly-shortleaf pine

FRES14 Oak-pine

FRES15 Oak-hickory

FRES17 Elm-ash-cottonwood

FRES18 Maple-beech-birch

FRES19 Aspen-birch

FRES20 Douglas-fir

FRES21 Ponderosa pine

FRES22 Western white pine

FRES23 Fir-spruce

FRES25 Larch

FRES28 Western hardwoods

FRES29 Sagebrush

FRES32 Texas savanna

FRES35 Pinyon-juniper

FRES36 Mountain grasslands

FRES37 Mountain meadows

FRES38 Plains grasslands

FRES39 Prairie

FRES41 Wet grasslands

FRES42 Annual grasslands
  • 24. Garrison, George A.; Bjugstad, Ardell J.; Duncan, Don A.; Lewis, Mont E.; Smith, Dixie R. 1977. Vegetation and environmental features of forest and range ecosystems. Agric. Handb. 475. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 68 p. [998]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

River valleys, dry mountain slopes; 1000--1200 m.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract Halictid bees, masked bees (Hylaeus spp.), Andrenid bees, Syrphid flies, and small butterflies. Two aphids, Chaitosiphon fragaefolii and Macrosiphum pseudorosae, suck sap from Potentilla spp. (Cinquefoil species), while the larvae of a moth, Tinagma obscurofasciella, are leaf-miners. Some grasshoppers, such as Melanoplus borealis (Northern Grasshopper), feed on the foliage. Among vertebrate animals, rabbits occasionally browse the lower leaves of this plant, but it is not a preferred food source. Cattle and other livestock also browse on the foliage. There is some evidence that the seeds of this and other Cinquefoil species can pass through the digestive tract of livestock and remain viable. Thus, these animals may facilitate their distribution into new areas. Photographic Location
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flower-Visiting Insects of Sulfur Cinquefoil in Illinois

Potentilla recta (Sulfur Cinquefoil) introduced
(Insect activity for bees, flies, and beetles is largely unspecified, while the butterflies suck nectar; some observations are from Grundel & Pavlovic, Krombein et al., Lewis, Mawdsley, and MacRae as indicated below, otherwise they are from Reed)

Bees (long-tongued)
Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina sp. (Re)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus (Re), Halictus ligatus (Re), Halictus parallelus (Re), Lasioglossum sp. (Re), Lasioglossum albipennis (Re), Lasioglossum laevissimus (Re), Lasioglossum paradmirandus (Re), Lasioglossum pruinosus (Re), Lasioglossum rohweri (Re); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis (Re), Hylaeus mesillae (Re); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena commoda (Re), Andrena cressonii (Re), Andrena miranda (Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn (Kr)

Flies
Syrphidae: Allograpta obliqua (Re), Toxomerus marginatus (Re)

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis sn (GP); Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn (Lw)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera ornata (McR); Cleridae: Trichodes nutalli (Mwd)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora fragariae parasitises live Potentilla recta

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora potentillae-reptantis parasitises live Potentilla recta

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: cover, fire exclusion, fire management, forbs, litter, natural, phenology, prescribed burn, prescribed fire, restoration, severity, wildfire

Fire as a control agent: Burning may not be recommended for control of sulfur cinquefoil, because perennial roots are likely to survive and resprout following fire.

Prescribed fire may be used as a management tool on some sites to control woody plants, restore historic FIRE REGIMES, and promote desirable species [53]. The disturbance created by fire can, however, favor invasive perennial forbs (e.g. [15,36,54]). Season of burning and other management activities (e.g. herbicide treatments, livestock and wildlife use) are important factors to consider when prescribing fire for natural area restoration where nonnative invasive plants are present [53].

Understanding the regeneration niche of invasive and desirable plants and selecting the best season for burning can help reduce the chance of problems. Practices that reduce the target plant's seed bank can reduce the chance of increased recruitment following fire. In some cases prescribed fire should be delayed until nonnative invasive plants have been controlled [53].

On The Nature Conservancy's Dancing Prairie Preserve in northwestern Montana, dormant-season fire can inhibit ponderosa pine invasion, reduce litter, invigorate native bunchgrasses, and enhance recruitment of native forbs including the federally-listed, threatened Spalding's silene (Silene spaldingii) [51]. Spalding's silene has a more positive response to spring burns compared to fall burns, while sulfur cinquefoil had a more positive response to fall burns. Additionally, more severe fall burns can be detrimental to rough fescue, the dominant native grass at the preserve, especially if there have been many years of fire exclusion leading to build-up of fuels and more severe fire effects. Prescribed burning conducted in the spring would be more beneficial than fall burning at this site [53].

When herbicide (e.g. picloram) is applied prior to prescribed burning, its residual activity may be reduced as a result of soil heating during and following fire. Sulfur cinquefoil seeds began germinating 1 to 3 years earlier in herbicide/burn plots compared to plots with only herbicide. There may be little benefit from residual activity of such herbicides where annual or biennial burning is practiced, as on many tallgrass prairies [53]. Alternatively, efficacy of herbicide on mature target plants may be enhanced by burning prior to herbicide application. Further research is needed on effects of combining herbicide treatments and prescribed fire.

Postfire colonization potential: Sulfur cinquefoil may establish after fire either by seed imported to the site or by soil-stored seed. More information is needed regarding sulfur cinquefoil seedling establishment and growth with and without fire.

Preventing postfire establishment and spread: The USDA Forest Service's "Guide to Noxious Weed Prevention Practices" [85] provides several fire management considerations for weed prevention in general that apply to sulfur cinquefoil.

Preventing invasive plants from establishing in weed-free burned areas is the most effective and least costly management method. This can be accomplished through early detection and eradication by careful monitoring, and by limiting invasive plant seed dispersal into burned areas by [26,85]:

  • re-establishing vegetation on bare ground as soon as possible

  • using only certified weed-free seed mixes when revegetation is necessary

  • cleaning equipment and vehicles prior to entering burned areas

  • regulating or preventing human and livestock entry into burned areas until desirable site vegetation has recovered sufficiently to resist invasion by undesirable vegetation

  • detecting weeds early and eradicating before vegetative spread and/or seed dispersal

  • eradicating small patches and containing or controlling large infestations within or adjacent to the burned area

In general, early detection is critical for preventing establishment of large populations of invasive plants. Monitoring in spring, summer, and fall is imperative. Managers should eradicate established sulfur cinquefoil plants and small patches adjacent to burned areas to prevent or limit seed dispersal into the site [26,85].

The need for revegetation after fire can be based on the degree of desirable vegetation displaced by invasive plants prior to burning and on postfire survival of desirable vegetation. Revegetation necessity can also be related to invasive plant survival as viable seeds, root crowns, or rhizomes capable of reproduction. In general, postfire revegetation should be considered when desirable vegetation cover is less than about 30% [26].

When prefire cover of sulfur cinquefoil is absent to low, and prefire cover of desirable vegetation is high, revegetation is probably not necessary after low- and medium-severity burns. After a high-severity burn on a site in this condition, revegetation may be necessary (depending on postfire survival of desirable species), and intensive monitoring for invasive plant establishment is necessary to detect and eradicate newly established invasives before they spread [26].

When prefire cover of sulfur cinquefoil is moderate (20-79%) to high (80-100%), revegetation may be necessary after fire of any severity if cover of desired vegetation is less than about 30%. Intensive weed management is also recommended, especially after fires of moderate to high severity [26].

Fall dormant broadcast seeding into ash will cover and retain seeds. If there is insufficient ash, seedbed preparation may be necessary. A seed mix should contain quick-establishing grasses and forbs (exclude forbs if broadleaf herbicides are anticipated) that can effectively occupy available niches. Managers can enhance the success of revegetation (natural or artificial) by excluding livestock until vegetation is well established (at least 2 growing seasons) [26].

When planning a prescribed burn, managers should preinventory the project area and evaluate cover and phenology of any sulfur cinquefoil and other invasive plants present on or adjacent to the site, and avoid ignition and burning in areas at high risk for sulfur cinquefoil establishment or spread due to fire effects. Managers should also avoid creating soil conditions that promote weed germination and establishment. Weed status and risks must be discussed in burn rehabilitation plans. Also, wildfire managers might consider including weed prevention education and providing weed identification aids during fire training; avoiding known weed infestations when locating fire lines; monitoring camps, staging areas, helibases, etc., to be sure they are kept weed free; taking care that equipment is weed free; incorporating weed prevention into fire rehabilitation plans; and acquiring restoration funding. Additional guidelines and specific recommendations and requirements are available [85].

  • 15. Crawford, Julie A.; Wahren, C.-H. A.; Kyle, S.; Moir, W. H. 2001. Responses of exotic plant species to fires in Pinus ponderosa forests in northern Arizona. Journal of Vegetation Science. 12(2): 261-268. [40145]
  • 26. Goodwin, Kim M.; Sheley, Roger L. 2001. What to do when fires fuel weeds: A step-by-step guide for managing invasive plants after a wildfire. Rangelands. 23(6): 15-21. [40399]
  • 36. Jacobs, James S.; Sheley, Roger L. 2003. Prescribed fire effects on Dalmatian toadflax. Journal of Range Management. 56(2): 193-197. [44751]
  • 51. Lesica, Peter. 1999. Effects of fire on the demography of the endangered geophytic herb, Silene spaldingii (Caryophyllaceae). American Journal of Botany. 86: 996-1002. [45283]
  • 53. Lesica, Peter; Martin, Brian. [In press]. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semi-arid grassland. Restoration Ecology. [45123]
  • 54. Maret, Mary P.; Wilson, Mark V. 2000. Fire and seedling population dynamics in western Oregon prairies. Journal of Vegetation Science. 11: 307-314. [37727]
  • 85. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 2001. Guide to noxious weed prevention practices. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 25 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [37889]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: density, fire severity, litter, prescribed fire, restoration, severity

Fire can, but will not always, cause an increase in population growth of
nonnative invasive plants in semiarid regions. "The vagaries of climate will
likely play a major role in determining whether prescribed fire will do more harm
than good" [53]. Season of burning and timing of burning within the season also
appear to affect response of sulfur cinquefoil to fire in the
fescue-wheatgrass-needlegrass grasslands at Dancing Prairie Preserve in
northwestern Montana [53].

Response of sulfur cinquefoil to fire differed between spring and fall
burns at Dancing Prairie Preserve. Density of small plants increased more in
fall-burn plots the 1st year after burning. However, density of small plants was
greater in spring-burn plots by the final year of the study (5 years after fire).
Observations of postfire residual litter indicate that fire severity was greater
for fall burns, possibly resulting in 'better' physical conditions for seedling establishment (less
litter, more light, less competition). Plant response to season of fire may depend on
germination requirements. Sulfur cinquefoil seeds germinate without stratification, suggesting
that many seeds may germinate in fall if conditions are suitable. In this study, sulfur cinquefoil had a more
positive response to fall burning than to spring burning [53].

Timing of fire within the season is also important to plant response.
"Relatively cool" fire prior to germination may stimulate seeds to germinate (by
breaking physical dormancy or providing important nutrients) while fire after
germination could cause high mortality of seedlings [53]. A large proportion of
sulfur cinquefoil seeds will germinate in fall without cold treatment [52], so a fall burn could
cause high mortality of young seedlings. At Dancing Prairie, it appears that a large number
of sulfur cinquefoil seeds had not germinated by mid-October in 1996 when the
fall burn was conducted. Further research on the relationship between
germination requirements and timing of burns could lead to fire prescriptions
that minimize the increase of invasive plants [53].

Effects of season of burning on sulfur cinquefoil may also depend on composition
of the plant community. In C3-dominated grasslands such as those at
Dancing Prairie, dormant season and late fall burns are more likely to harm
nonnative, invasive plant populations without damaging native species, while
late-spring and early-fall burns are more detrimental to native species. However,
early and late spring burns in C4 dominated grasslands, such as those of
central North America, result in high mortality of early-germinating C3
nonnative plants with little damage to the native flora [78] and may therefore be
preferable to growing- or late-season burns [53].
The Research Project Summary
Vegetation response to restoration treatments in ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests of western Montana
provides information on prescribed fire and postfire response of plant community species including
sulfur cinquefoil.
  • 52. Lesica, Peter. 2002. Demography of Potentilla recta at Dancing Prairie Preserve, Lincoln County, Montana. Progress Report. Helena, MT: The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [45124]
  • 53. Lesica, Peter; Martin, Brian. [In press]. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semi-arid grassland. Restoration Ecology. [45123]
  • 78. Smith, Melinda D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1999. Exotic plant species in a C4-dominated grassland: invasibility, disturbance, and community structure. Oecologia. 120(4): 605-612. [30903]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: caudex, competition, density, fire severity, prescribed fire, severity

There is little information available regarding sulfur cinquefoil's response to fire. Sulfur cinquefoil's response to fire probably depends on fire severity, plant phenological stage at the time of burning, depth of burial of perennating tissues and seeds, and the composition of the prefire plant community. Postfire conditions including decreased aboveground competition, increased light at the soil surface, and enhanced nutrient availability favor growth of surviving sulfur cinquefoil plants and establishment of sulfur cinquefoil from seed. Plants may re-establish either from on-site seed or from seed dispersed into a burned area following fire. Sulfur cinquefoil resprouts from the caudex and develops heavier rootstocks when topgrowth is removed by mowing [91]. Sulfur cinquefoil plants may react in a similar way when topgrowth is removed by fire as long as perennating tissues survive.

At Dancing Prairie Preserve, density of small sulfur cinquefoil plants declined less in burn plots compared to control plots during the year following burn treatments, indicating that fire enhanced survival of new recruits. During the 2nd year following burn treatments, the number of small plants continued to decline, while the number of large plants increased, probably indicating growth into the larger size classes rather than attrition. There was a tendency for the number of large plants to increase in burn plots, although the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05) [53].

Results from Dancing Prairie [53] also suggest that prescribed fire can enhance germination of sulfur cinquefoil. However, survival of seedlings depends on sufficient moisture. In semiarid grasslands, moisture is often lacking, and may not, therefore, result in population growth of sulfur cinquefoil. Burning will lead to an increase in mature plants only if the climate in subsequent years is conducive to survival [53].

  • 53. Lesica, Peter; Martin, Brian. [In press]. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semi-arid grassland. Restoration Ecology. [45123]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Broad-scale Impacts of Fire

More info for the term: density

Density of small sulfur cinquefoil plants declined in both burn and control plots the 1st year following burn treatments on Dancing Prairie Preserve, and was probably caused by 51% below average precipitation the previous summer. Mean density of small sulfur cinquefoil plants declined by 47% in control plots, by 42% in spring burn plots, and by 12% in fall burn plots. Smaller declines in density of small sulfur cinquefoil plants in burn versus control plots may indicate that fire has a positive effect on germination and recruitment of sulfur cinquefoil, especially following fall burns [53].
  • 53. Lesica, Peter; Martin, Brian. [In press]. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semi-arid grassland. Restoration Ecology. [45123]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the terms: caudex, density, fire severity, severity

There is little published information available regarding effects of fire on sulfur cinquefoil. The survival of plant parts after fire depends on their depth of burial and fire severity. Large sulfur cinquefoil plants are top-killed by fire, and perennating buds in the caudex can survive fire if they are not exposed to lethal temperatures [53]. The available literature does not specify the location of sulfur cinquefoil's perennating buds in relation to the soil surface.

At Dancing Prairie Preserve in northwestern Montana, neither fall nor spring burning resulted in mortality of large (>5 leaves and a woody caudex) sulfur cinquefoil plants. Fire had a significant (p<0.05) negative effect on density of small (1-4 leaves without a well-developed caudex) sulfur cinquefoil plants immediately after burning; however this effect was detectable for only 1 year after fire [53].

Heat tolerance of sulfur cinquefoil seeds is unknown. Results from Dancing Prairie Preserve indicate recruitment of sulfur cinquefoil occurred in burn plots the 1st year following both spring and fall burning. More recruitment was observed in fall burn plots, which had higher fire severity [53]. If no sulfur cinquefoil seed was dispersed into the burned area from offsite sources, it may be assumed that sulfur cinquefoil seeds can survive this type of grassland fire.

  • 53. Lesica, Peter; Martin, Brian. [In press]. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semi-arid grassland. Restoration Ecology. [45123]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: ground residual colonizer, initial off-site colonizer, root crown, secondary colonizer

POSTFIRE REGENERATION STRATEGY [80]:
Caudex/herbaceous root crown, growing points in soil
Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)
Initial off-site colonizer (off-site, initial community)
Secondary colonizer (on-site or off-site seed sources)
  • 80. Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 10 p. [20090]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: caudex, competition, fire exclusion, fire intensity, fire regime, fire severity, frequency, fuel, nonnative species, prescribed fire, presence, severity

Fire adaptations: There is little information available regarding sulfur cinquefoil's adaptations to fire. The survival of plant parts after fire depends on depth of burial and fire severity. Perennating buds in the caudex of sulfur cinquefoil can survive fire if they are not exposed to lethal temperatures. The available literature does not specify the location of sulfur cinquefoil's perennating buds in relation to the soil surface.

Sulfur cinquefoil is likely to resprout from the caudex following fire, and/or plants may respond by developing heavier rootstocks, as was observed with plants whose topgrowth was removed by mowing in Michigan [91]. Heat tolerance of sulfur cinquefoil's perennating tissues is unknown.

Heat tolerance of sulfur cinquefoil seeds is also unknown; buried seeds may survive fires of low severity. Postfire conditions including decreased aboveground competition, increased light at the soil surface, and enhanced nutrient availability are favorable for sulfur cinquefoil establishment from seed. Plants may re-establish either from on-site seed or from seed dispersed into a burned area following fire.

FIRE REGIMES: Sulfur cinquefoil occurs in ecosystems with historic FIRE REGIMES of varied frequency and severity, from frequent, low-severity fires in ponderosa pine ecosystems, to less frequent and more severe fires in bunchgrass ecosystems, to frequent and severe fires in plains and prairie grassland ecosystems. Many of these historic FIRE REGIMES have been dramatically altered. Sulfur cinquefoil did not occur or was not widespread in these communities when historic FIRE REGIMES were functioning, but established after habitat alteration and fire exclusion began. It is unclear how historic FIRE REGIMES might affect sulfur cinquefoil populations in many situations, and it is unclear how the presence of sulfur cinquefoil in native ecosystems might affect FIRE REGIMES.

On fescue-wheatgrass-needlegrass (Festuca spp.-Agropyron spp.-Hesperostipa spp.) habitats of the Tobacco Plains in northwestern Montana, fires caused by lightning and ignited by Native Americans played an important role in structuring vegetation [42]. Most presettlement fires occurred during the summer and early fall [31]. In this area, on The Nature Conservancy's Dancing Prairie Preserve, sulfur cinquefoil has become a major component in portions of the grassland. Experiments with prescribed fire indicate that sulfur cinquefoil had a more positive response to fall burning than to spring burning. In this case, fall fires may favor sulfur cinquefoil and damage desirable native species. This may be especially true after a long period of fire exclusion leading to a build-up of fuels and increased fire severity [53]. In other ecosystems, such as the C4-dominated grasslands of North America, early- and late-spring burns can result in high mortality of early-germinating, nonnative species, with little damage to native flora [78].

There is no evidence in the literature that sulfur cinquefoil alters historic FIRE REGIMES in ecosystems it invades. In general, in ecosystems where sulfur cinquefoil replaces plants similar to itself (in terms of fuel characteristics), it may alter fire intensity or slightly modify an existing fire regime. However, if sulfur cinquefoil is qualitatively unique to the invaded ecosystem, it may have the potential to alter the fire regime [16].

The following table provides fire return intervals for important plant communities and ecosystems in which sulfur cinquefoil may occur. If you are interested in the fire regime of a plant community that is not listed here, please consult the complete FEIS fire regime table.

Community or Ecosystem Dominant Species Fire Return Interval Range (years)
grand fir Abies grandis 35-200 [2]
bluestem prairie Andropogon gerardii var. gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 43,59]
Nebraska sandhills prairie A. g. var. paucipilus-S. s. < 10
sagebrush steppe Artemisia tridentata/Pseudoroegneria spicata 20-70 [59]
plains grasslands Bouteloua spp. 59,93]
blue grama-needle-and-thread grass-western wheatgrass B. gracilis-Hesperostipa comata-Pascopyrum smithii 59,74,93]
blue grama-buffalo grass B. gracilis-Buchloe dactyloides 59,93]
California steppe Festuca-Danthonia spp. 59,81]
western juniper Juniperus occidentalis 20-70
Rocky Mountain juniper J. scopulorum < 35
cedar glades J. virginiana 3-7 [59]
western larch Larix occidentalis 25-100 [2]
wheatgrass plains grasslands Pascopyrum smithii 59,61,93]
Great Lakes spruce-fir Picea-Abies spp. 35 to > 200 [19]
Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir P. engelmannii-A. lasiocarpa 35 to > 200 [2]
jack pine Pinus banksiana 19]
western white pine* P. monticola 50-200
Pacific ponderosa pine* P. ponderosa var. ponderosa 1-47 [2]
interior ponderosa pine* P. ponderosa var. scopulorum 2-30 [2,5,49]
red pine (Great Lakes region) P. resinosa 10-200 (10**) [19,23]
red-white-jack pine* P. resinosa-P. strobus-P. banksiana 10-300 [19,33]
eastern white pine P. strobus 35-200
Virginia pine P. virginiana 10 to < 35
Virginia pine-oak P. virginiana-Quercus spp. 10 to 89]
quaking aspen (west of the Great Plains) Populus tremuloides 7-120 [2,30,56]
mountain grasslands Pseudoroegneria spicata 3-40 (10**) [1,2]
Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir* Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca 25-100 [2,3,4]
coastal Douglas-fir* P. menziesii var. menziesii 40-240 [2,58,71]
oak-hickory Quercus-Carya spp. 89]
oak-juniper woodland (Southwest) Quercus-Juniperus spp. 59]
northeastern oak-pine Quercus-Pinus spp. 10 to < 35
northern pin oak Q. ellipsoidalis < 35
bur oak Q. macrocarpa 89]
oak savanna Q. macrocarpa/Andropogon gerardii-Schizachyrium scoparium 2-14 [59,89]
northern red oak Q. rubra 10 to 89]
little bluestem-grama prairie S. scoparium-Bouteloua spp. 59]
western redcedar-western hemlock Thuja plicata-Tsuga heterophylla > 200 [2]
elm-ash-cottonwood Ulmus-Fraxinus-Populus spp. 19,89]
*fire return interval varies widely; trends in variation are noted in the species summary
**mean
  • 1. Arno, Stephen F. 1980. Forest fire history in the Northern Rockies. Journal of Forestry. 78(8): 460-465. [11990]
  • 16. D'Antonio, Carla M. 2000. Fire, plant invasions, and global changes. In: Mooney, Harold A.; Hobbs, Richard J., eds. Invasive species in a changing world. Washington, DC: Island Press: 65-93. [37679]
  • 19. Duchesne, Luc C.; Hawkes, Brad C. 2000. Fire in northern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 35-51. [36982]
  • 2. Arno, Stephen F. 2000. Fire in western forest ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 97-120. [36984]
  • 23. Frissell, Sidney S., Jr. 1968. A fire chronology for Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Minnesota Forestry Research Notes No. 196. St. Paul, MN: University of Minnesota. 2 p. [34527]
  • 3. Arno, Stephen F.; Gruell, George E. 1983. Fire history at the forest-grassland ecotone in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management. 36(3): 332-336. [342]
  • 30. Gruell, G. E.; Loope, L. L. 1974. Relationships among aspen, fire, and ungulate browsing in Jackson Hole, Wyoming. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 p. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Rocky Mountain Region. [3862]
  • 31. Gruell, George E. 1985. Indian fires in the Interior West. In: Lotan, James E.; Kilgore, Bruce M.; Fisher, William C.; Mutch, Robert W., tech. coords. Proceedings--symposium and workshop on wilderness fire; 1983 November 15-18; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-182. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 68-74. [45256]
  • 33. Heinselman, Miron L. 1970. The natural role of fire in northern conifer forest. In: The role of fire in the Intermountain West: Proceedings of a symposium; 1970 October 27-29; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: Intermountain Fire Research Council: 30-41. In cooperation with: University of Montana, School of Forestry. [15735]
  • 4. Arno, Stephen F.; Scott, Joe H.; Hartwell, Michael G. 1995. Age-class structure of old growth ponderosa pine/Douglas-fir stands and its relationship to fire history. Res. Pap. INT-RP-481. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 25 p. [25928]
  • 42. Koterba, Wayne D.; Habeck, James R. 1971. Grasslands of the North Fork Valley, Glacier National Park, Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany. 49: 1627-1636. [6401]
  • 49. Laven, R. D.; Omi, P. N.; Wyant, J. G.; Pinkerton, A. S. 1980. Interpretation of fire scar data from a ponderosa pine ecosystem in the central Rocky Mountains, Colorado. In: Stokes, Marvin A.; Dieterich, John H., technical coordinators. Proceedings of the fire history workshop; 1980 October 20-24; Tucson, AZ. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-81. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 46-49. [7183]
  • 5. Baisan, Christopher H.; Swetnam, Thomas W. 1990. Fire history on a desert mountain range: Rincon Mountain Wilderness, Arizona, U.S.A. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 20: 1559-1569. [14986]
  • 53. Lesica, Peter; Martin, Brian. [In press]. Effects of prescribed fire and season of burn on recruitment of the invasive exotic plant, Potentilla recta, in a semi-arid grassland. Restoration Ecology. [45123]
  • 56. Meinecke, E. P. 1929. Quaking aspen: A study in applied forest pathology. Tech. Bull. No. 155. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 34 p. [26669]
  • 58. Morrison, Peter H.; Swanson, Frederick J. 1990. Fire history and pattern in a Cascade Range landscape. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-254. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 77 p. [13074]
  • 59. Paysen, Timothy E.; Ansley, R. James; Brown, James K.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in western shrubland, woodland, and grassland ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-volume 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 121-159. [36978]
  • 61. Quinnild, Clayton L.; Cosby, Hugh E. 1958. Relicts of climax vegetation on two mesas in western North Dakota. Ecology. 39(1): 29-32. [1925]
  • 71. Ripple, William J. 1994. Historic spatial patterns of old forests in western Oregon. Journal of Forestry. 92(11): 45-49. [33881]
  • 74. Rowe, J. S. 1983. Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. In: Wein, Ross W.; MacLean, David A., eds. The role of fire in northern circumpolar ecosystems. SCOPE 18. New York: John Wiley & Sons: 135-154. [2038]
  • 78. Smith, Melinda D.; Knapp, Alan K. 1999. Exotic plant species in a C4-dominated grassland: invasibility, disturbance, and community structure. Oecologia. 120(4): 605-612. [30903]
  • 81. Stomberg, Mark R.; Kephart, Paul; Yadon, Vern. 2001. Composition, invasibility, and diversity in coastal California grasslands. Madrono. 48(4): 236-252. [41371]
  • 89. Wade, Dale D.; Brock, Brent L.; Brose, Patrick H.; [and others]. 2000. Fire in eastern ecosystems. In: Brown, James K.; Smith, Jane Kapler, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. Gen. Tech. Rep. RMRS-GTR-42-vol. 2. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station: 53-96. [36983]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]
  • 93. Wright, Henry A.; Bailey, Arthur W. 1982. Fire ecology: United States and southern Canada. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 501 p. [2620]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: association, cover, natural, selection, succession

Sulfur cinquefoil is an early successional species in North America, as indicated by its common occurrence in disturbed habitats (see Site Characteristics). Sulfur cinquefoil is often found in association with early seral stages in the Interior Douglas-fir biogeoclimatic zone in British Columbia [60]. In abandoned fields in Michigan, sulfur cinquefoil is found from the earliest stages of succession until extensive woody cover is present [79,91]. Sulfur cinquefoil was present on old fields in Michigan abandoned from cultivation 5 and 15 years previously but was not a major species on a field abandoned for only 1 year [29]. According to Beckwith [9], sulfur cinquefoil is common in the mixed herbaceous perennial stage of old-field succession which usually predominates 11 to 15 years after abandonment from grain crops and 16 to 20 years after abandonment from cultivated fields and hay fields in Michigan.

According to Rice [69,70] land managers have reported sulfur cinquefoil increases while spotted knapweed declines on numerous sites in Montana. Preferential grazing by cattle of up to 30% of spotted knapweed has also been observed, with only trace utilization of sulfur cinquefoil. This may explain, in part, why succession to sulfur cinquefoil is sometimes observed, although the possibility of species selection through herbicide use cannot be excluded (see Chemical control), since management history of these sites is not described. It is also suggested that sulfur cinquefoil competes successfully with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and leafy spurge on several sites [70]. However, there is no reference indicating the co-occurrence of sulfur cinquefoil and yellow starthistle, and only 1 example of the co-occurrence of sulfur cinquefoil with leafy spurge on 1 site in Montana [69]. There is no experimental evidence regarding the relative competitiveness of these species in the literature.

Light regime: Sulfur cinquefoil appears to be intolerant of complete shade. Sulfur cinquefoil is never associated with a 100% canopy cover of other vegetation, and is normally found in areas with less than 90% vegetative cover in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia (Schaffner and Tosevski 1994, as cited by Powell [60]). In Michigan, sulfur cinquefoil is found along wood margins, but not under forest canopy [91]. Sulfur cinquefoil occurred in 3 old fields in Michigan which received 51 to 84% of full sunlight. The lowest light level (51%) was in a shrubby habitat dominated by staghorn sumac [79]. Shading from a dense overstory prevents establishment of sulfur cinquefoil in mature forests in western Montana, but sulfur cinquefoil can successfully occupy areas below natural gaps in the forest canopy [70].

  • 29. Gross, Katherine L.; Werner, Patricia A. 1982. Colonizing abilities of "biennial" plant species in relation to ground cover: implications for their distributions in a successional sere. Ecology. 63(4): 921-931. [12143]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 79. Soule, J. D.; Werner, P. A. 1981. Patterns of resource allocation in plants, with special reference to Potentilla recta L. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 198(3): 311-319. [2200]
  • 9. Beckwith, Stephen L. 1954. Ecological succession on abandoned farm lands and its relationship to wildlife management. Ecological Monographs. 24(4): 349-376. [4129]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Regeneration Processes

More info for the terms: caudex, competition, density, fresh, natural, peat, xeric

Sulfur cinquefoil reproduces by seed and vegetatively by sprouting from a caudex.

Soule and Werner [79] studied reproductive effort (the proportion of aboveground biomass allocated to reproductive parts) in sulfur cinquefoil in 3 old fields in Michigan and found it to be variable among years and habitats. The average reproductive effort ranged from 16 to 28%. The 1st year of sampling indicated reproductive effort declined from the least successionally mature population to the most mature population. However, this relationship was not observed in the 2nd year of sampling [79].

Breeding system: Cross-fertilization is the most common means of fertilization in sulfur cinquefoil, but some seeds are produced by self-pollination. Sulfur cinquefoil is cross-pollinated by wind or insects [8,91].

Seed production: Werner and Soule [91] report an average of 61.5 + 28.0 seeds per flower, 25.0 + 10.7 flowers per stem, and 1.1 + 0.4 stems per plant from sulfur cinquefoil studied in old fields in Michigan. From these data they calculate that a single sulfur cinquefoil plant might produce about 1,650 seeds under the site conditions of their study. In a population with 2.7 plants per m2, about 4,400 seeds per m2 may be produced each year [91]. On a grassland site in northwestern Montana, the proportion of sulfur cinquefoil plants producing fruit ranged from 3 to 86%, was highly variable, and was highest during years with highest precipitation. These plants produced an average of 123 seeds per fruit, when averaged over 3 years. Number of seeds per fruit was highest in the 2 wettest years, and lowest on the most xeric plot in the study [52].

Seed dispersal: When mature, most sulfur cinquefoil seed is dispersed by falling passively to the ground [91]. The importance of seed-dispersal mechanisms has not been specifically documented in sulfur cinquefoil. While grazing animals rarely eat sulfur cinquefoil, and feeding by small mammals or birds on sulfur cinquefoil plants or seeds is unknown, more research is needed to determine whether seed could be distributed by birds, small mammals, ungulates, and other grazing animals in the following ways [60]:

  • In small mammal caches;

  • in plant material used for nests and burrows;

  • in soil trapped in ungulate hooves; and

  • ingested seeds which pass through the digestive tract.

Human activities also provide several potential seed dispersal vectors [60]:

  • in topsoil, gravel, and other quarried materials;

  • in plant material caught in the undercarriage, doors, and wheel spokes of all-terrain vehicles, trucks, and cars;

  • in soil stuck to earth-moving equipment, etc;

  • in plants collected for fresh and dried floral arrangements;

  • through cultivation of sulfur cinquefoil as an ornamental species; and

  • in plant material cut for hay or bedding for livestock

Seed banking: In a laboratory experiment, some viable sulfur cinquefoil seeds remained after 28 months of burial at 3 inches (7 cm), suggesting the potential for forming a persistent seed bank. Several other cinquefoil species form persistent seed banks [7]. According to Rice and others [66], "sulfur cinquefoil re-establishes within 3 or 4 years following herbicide treatment. This suggests that cinquefoil seeds remain viable in the soil for more than 4 years." They do not indicate what herbicide was used or the site conditions under which this observation was made; nor do they address the possibility of sulfur cinquefoil seed dispersal from offsite sources.

The ultimate longevity of sulfur cinquefoil seeds in soil, and the relationship between soil conditions and rate of sulfur cinquefoil seed decay is yet unknown [60]. More research in this area is needed.

Germination: Baskin and Baskin [7] conducted a laboratory experiment to study germination ecology of sulfur cinquefoil. Fresh, mature sulfur cinquefoil seeds were buried and exposed to natural yearly temperature cycles. Seeds were exhumed at monthly intervals and tested in light and darkness at various 12/12 hour alternating temperature regimes. At maturity, a high percentage of sulfur cinquefoil seeds was dormant (i.e. did not germinate at any thermoperiod in either light or darkness). Some of the fresh, mature seed was conditionally dormant (2-38% germinated in light only at 59/43 and 68/50 degrees Fahrenheit (15/6 and 20/10 °C)). During summer, sulfur cinquefoil seeds after-ripened, and germination percentages and the maximum temperature at which germination occurred increased. All sulfur cinquefoil seeds were nondormant by autumn. Once dormancy is broken, seeds do no re-enter dormancy if they fail to germinate. Sulfur cinquefoil seeds did not exhibit a seasonal cycle in their germination responses. No sulfur cinquefoil germination occurred in darkness. The upper temperature limit for germination of sulfur cinquefoil seeds is around 95/68 degrees Fahrenheit (35/20 °C). Thus, buried seeds can potentially germinate during any month of the growing season, if a disturbance brings the seeds to the soil surface and moisture is not limiting [7]. In northwestern Montana, seeds collected in August germinated readily in October with warm/dark-light (55% germination) and warm-cold/dark-light (70% germination) treatments. About 5% germinated in the dark [52].

Werner and Soule [91] cite a study in which a maximum germination rate of 17.5% occurred for sulfur cinquefoil seeds after 1 month of storage in sand or 2 months in peat, under moist conditions. Germination was very low in seeds stored under dry conditions [91].

A study by Bosy and Aarssen [11] demonstrates that physical orientation of sulfur cinquefoil seed in the soil can affect germination rates. They conclude that the effects of the environment on an individual seed can depend entirely on its orientation (which may occur by chance), even within a substrate that is completely homogeneous [11].

Seedling establishment/growth: Very little information is available on seedling establishment and growth of sulfur cinquefoil. Research regarding its growth characteristics in various environments with varying degrees of plant competition is necessary to understand its potential impacts.

Recruitment of sulfur cinquefoil was low during 4 years of a study in grassland sites in northwestern Montana. Two plots averaged less than 0.5 recruits per fruiting plant, and the plot with the highest recruitment rate averaged 2 recruits per fruiting plant. The majority of plants remained in the same size class or became smaller during the study in all 4 sample populations. Mortality rates of sulfur cinquefoil in these plots ranged from 6 to 48%, and density of small sulfur cinquefoil plants remained low during the 4 years of this study. This time period coincided with 15-30% below average precipitation. Mortality rates were highest in 1999, because most of the small plants (probably recruited in 1998, a year with above average precipitation and high seedling recruitment) died. The author suggests drought combined with competition from established vegetation caused high mortality of seedlings [52].

Asexual regeneration: The usual pattern of yearly regeneration of sulfur cinquefoil is by new shoots appearing near edges of the caudex, while the old central part slowly rots away during successive growing seasons. The result is that long-lived plants are in the form of a circle of upright stems, sometimes with other plants growing in this central area. Through this means of asexual regeneration, a sulfur cinquefoil plant eventually becomes several independent closely spaced plants. Sprouting from the caudex also allows sulfur cinquefoil to survive along roadsides and other areas that are disturbed periodically, as new shoots sprout soon after established shoots are cut off [91]. This method of vegetative reproduction does not result in broad dispersal of sulfur cinquefoil plants, as the offspring grow close to the former root system of the parent plant. The importance of vegetative reproduction relative to reproduction by seed is unknown [60].

A Pacific Northwest extension publication suggests that sulfur cinquefoil can "spread by roots when they are transported by tillage or on soil-moving equipment"; and that "stems that are knocked to the ground can produce roots at the nodes" [13]. The source of this information is not specified and reference to sulfur cinquefoil reproduction by this means is not found elsewhere in the literature.

  • 11. Bosy, J.; Aarssen, L. W. 1995. The effect of seed orientation on germination in a uniform environment: differential success without genetic or environmental variation. Journal of Ecology. 83(5): 769-773. [44984]
  • 13. Callihan, Robert H.; Old, Richard R.; Burnworth, R. Susan. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil (Potentilla recta L.). PNW 376. Corvallis, OR: Pacific Northwest Cooperative Extension Service [Idaho, Oregon, Washington]. 3 p. [24076]
  • 52. Lesica, Peter. 2002. Demography of Potentilla recta at Dancing Prairie Preserve, Lincoln County, Montana. Progress Report. Helena, MT: The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [45124]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 7. Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C. 1990. Role of temperature and light in the germination ecology of buried seeds of Potentilla recta. Annals of Applied Biology. 117(3): 611-616. [24078]
  • 79. Soule, J. D.; Werner, P. A. 1981. Patterns of resource allocation in plants, with special reference to Potentilla recta L. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 198(3): 311-319. [2200]
  • 8. Batra, S. W. T. 1979. Insects associated with weeds in the northeastern United States. II. Cinquefoils, Potentilla norvegica and P. recta (Rosaceae). New York Entomological Society. 87(3): 216-222. [24077]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

RAUNKIAER [63] LIFE FORM:
Hemicryptophyte
  • 63. Raunkiaer, C. 1934. The life forms of plants and statistical plant geography. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 632 p. [2843]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life Form

More info for the term: forb

Forb

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: phenology

Research is needed on the phenology of sulfur cinquefoil in different areas in which it occurs.

Flowering dates given for sulfur cinquefoil by region are:

State/region Flowering dates References
Adirondacks June 19 through July;  immature fruit August 4 [45]
Carolinas April-July [62]
eastern seaboard, from Newfoundland to North Carolina April to September [20]
Great Plains May to July [28]
Illinois May to July [57]
Kansas May -June (July) [6]
Nevada June to July [41]
Northeast June thru August [25]
West Virginia May-August [82]
Nova Scotia June 20 to July [72]

Sulfur cinquefoil plants germinating in the spring establish woody taproots in their 1st growing season [60,91]. In Montana, sulfur cinquefoil is one of the 1st plants to emerge in spring. It begins flowering in May and will continue to flower throughout the summer if conditions are favorable [66]. It is one of the fastest plants to green up in fall in response to late summer/early fall rains, and continues to grow until freezing temperatures are sustained [69]. The following table provides timing of growth stages observed for sulfur cinquefoil in Montana [69]:

Date

Growth stage
early/mid March first basal leaves emerge
April basal rosettes fully formed
May bolt
late May/early June bud stage
June bloom
July seed set
late July/early August seed dispersal begins
August leaf senescence
September/October fall greenup with new basal leaves
late October growth stops after extended freeze

In Michigan in 1975, sulfur cinquefoil began flowering about 1 June, with the majority of the buds in anthesis about 21 June. On any individual plant, flowers were produced for many weeks, the earliest forming mature seed heads at the same time the later buds are coming into flower. Flowering continued until about 7 August, at which time 59.8% of the flower heads had produced mature seeds [91].

  • 20. Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1987. The Smithsonian guide to seaside plants of the Gulf and Atlantic coasts from Louisiana to Massachusetts, exclusive of lower peninsular Florida. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. 409 p. [12906]
  • 25. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 28. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 41. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 45. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 57. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 6. Bare, Janet E. 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, KS: The Regents Press of Kansas. 509 p. [3801]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 62. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 72. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 82. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Potentilla recta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Potentilla recta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

As of this writing (2003), sulfur cinquefoil is listed as a noxious weed in 5 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province [87] See the Plants or Invaders databases for more information.
  • 87. University of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences. 2001. INVADERS Database System, [Online]. Available: http://invader.dbs.umt.edu/ [2001, June 27]. [37489]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Impacts and Control

More info for the terms: cover, fire management, frequency, invasive species, natural, nonnative species, presence, restoration, root crown, rootstock, severity, succession

Impacts: Explicit in the definition of sulfur cinquefoil as a problem species is the assumption that it displaces other plant species and the myriad organisms that depend on these plant communities, as well as the negative economic consequences for industries based on these natural resources. Sulfur cinquefoil may have harmful impacts on native flora and fauna, however more research is needed to clarify the extent of these impacts [60]. Untested hypotheses and unsubstantiated claims can be perpetuated in the literature until they become widely accepted, without the benefit of experimental analysis or peer review. A well-documented example of this occurred with purple loosestrife [32].

The following information on impacts of sulfur cinquefoil, its ability to outcompete native and other nonnative plants, and its rapid rate of expansion are commonly found in agricultural extension and gray literature though they are largely untested. To better define its potential impacts, research is needed on the competitiveness of sulfur cinquefoil relative to other plant species, its rate of expansion, its persistence at various seral stages in different ecosystems, its ecological amplitude, and its influence on the dynamics of various ecosystems [60].

There are no specific data on the relative competitiveness of sulfur cinquefoil. Its perennial nature and large root reserves likely give it a competitive advantage in open-canopied situations, but the relative advantage of these attributes remain unquantified [60]. According to Rice and others [66,68] sulfur cinquefoil displaces native plant species in undisturbed habitats, reduces grass production, and may alter the functioning of ecosystems by lowering biodiversity, although this is not documented quantitatively.

Based on canopy cover estimates of sulfur cinquefoil at 85 sites in western Montana, Rice [70] concludes that "sulfur cinquefoil often becomes a significant component of the plant community, and has proceeded to dominance on many sites" [69]. At 75% of the 85 sampled sites, sulfur cinquefoil canopy cover exceeded 5% of the plant cover; on 50% of the sites, sulfur cinquefoil canopy cover exceeded 15%; on 14% of the sites, sulfur cinquefoil canopy cover was 50% or more; and on 1 site, sulfur cinquefoil canopy cover was 75%. On most sites sulfur cinquefoil canopy cover ranged from 5 to 15% [69]. While Rice [69] suggests that canopy cover is a useful measure of the severity of a weed infestation and the competitive ability a particular plant, Lesica [50] indicates that canopy cover estimates are subjective and can be dependent on yearly climatic fluctuations, and not, therefore, very useful for monitoring trends in plant communities.

Rice also suggests that sulfur cinquefoil competes well with other nonnative, invasive species such as yellow starthistle, leafy spurge, and spotted knapweed, although no quantitative evidence is given [69,70]. Land managers in Montana indicate that sulfur cinquefoil displaces spotted knapweed on several sites [37,69]. The management history of these sites is unknown, and may influence the relationship between sulfur cinquefoil and spotted knapweed. For example, if clopyralid is used to control spotted knapweed, sulfur cinquefoil would be favored since sulfur cinquefoil is not sensitive to clopyralid [46,70]. Similarly, sulfur cinquefoil may be displacing diffuse knapweed on sites in British Columbia where knapweed vigor is reduced by introduced biological control agents [60].

In 1981, Forcella and Harvey [22] plotted the number of counties reporting the presence of each of 100 nonnative plant species in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming over time and described 3 patterns of infestation. They described infestation by sulfur cinquefoil as following an "exponential pattern." The distribution of sulfur cinquefoil was rapidly increasing as of 1980, and they predicted that it would become a problem in western Montana, eastern Washington and central Idaho "at some later date" [22]. According to Rice [70] "sulfur cinquefoil is rapidly increasing its geographic distribution. The number of new colonies is increasing exponentially. Many of these infestations are reaching environmentally severe sizes and densities." These assessments, however, remain neither confirmed nor denied by experimental data [60].

While it has been suggested that sulfur cinquefoil infestations can expand rapidly, and large infestations are not uncommon, the majority of colonies of sulfur cinquefoil observed in western Montana were small, with half of them less than 10 acres (4ha) [69,70].

The influence and interaction of sulfur cinquefoil with chemical and biological soil processes are also largely unknown. As a pioneer species on disturbed soil, it may help to bind soil and prevent erosion [60,91]. The breakdown of annual growth and root exudates likely releases tannins into the soil, but their influence on soil ecology and water quality have not been examined. Sulfur cinquefoil is not known to be allelopathic, and its interactions with soil biota also remain unquantified [60].

Control: Correct identification is an important first step in controlling sulfur cinquefoil, as it may be easily mistaken for native cinquefoils (see General Botanical Characteristics).

Prevention of sulfur cinquefoil establishment by maintaining native plant communities in an undisturbed condition is the most effective control strategy. Monitoring, early detection and eradication of newly established plants before seeds are produced and populations expand is more efficient and effective than laboring to control established infestations. Individual plants and small patches of sulfur cinquefoil can be eliminated by hand-pulling or digging, or by spot spraying of herbicides. The root crown (upper portion of the root system) must be removed or killed so that plants cannot resprout.

Because sulfur cinquefoil seeds may remain viable in the soil for 3 years or more [66], treated sites must be monitored annually for newly established sulfur cinquefoil plants [70].

Because sulfur cinquefoil occurs and is competitive with several other invasive species [69], management to control it and/or other species must consider the possibility of succession to other undesirable species when plants are removed.

Prevention: Preventing sulfur cinquefoil infestations is the most time- and cost-effective management approach. This is accomplished by maintaining desirable plant communities (by limiting livestock grazing, minimizing soil disturbance, and seeding disturbed sites with desirable species), preventing sulfur cinquefoil seeds from entering uninfested areas, and careful monitoring for and early eradication of newly established sulfur cinquefoil plants. This is especially important where sulfur cinquefoil is common in areas around the management site, especially along roads, trails, and rivers.

Prevent sulfur cinquefoil seeds from entering uninfested areas as follows:

  • Check and clean equipment before moving it into infested areas or before bringing it from infested areas.

  • When moving livestock from infested to uninfested areas, hold them in corrals or small pastures until viable seeds have had time to pass through the digestive tract (6 days for cattle, 11 days for sheep).

  • Monitor for sulfur cinquefoil seedling establishment in livestock holding areas and areas where dirt has been imported [48].

  • Avoid purchasing feed or seed that could be contaminated with weed seeds. Viable sulfur cinquefoil seeds may even be present in feed pellets.

  • Treat road construction projects as 10- to 20-year biological projects rather than 1- to 2-year engineering projects, with biologists and resource managers overseeing road construction and restoration. Projects should not be considered complete until native vegetation is fully established. Topsoil removed during construction can be redeposited in roadside ditches, and roadsides reseeded with native species. Roadsides should then be regularly monitored and actively managed for control and eradication of nonnative species [84].

Integrated management: While there is no specific information on integrated management of sulfur cinquefoil, a combination of control methods is often necessary to eradicate or successfully contain infestations of nonnative invasive plants. Managers are encouraged to integrate different control methods that can complement one another in a given situation. Integrated management includes considerations of not only killing the target plant, but also of establishing desirable species and discouraging nonnative, invasive species over the long-term.

Physical/mechanical: Hand-digging or hand-pulling sulfur cinquefoil plants can be effective in small infestations, but may be impractical for large infestations, since the entire root crown must be removed in order to kill the plant [60,70]. Annual monitoring must be conducted to locate new plants that may establish from the soil seed bank or from seed dispersed from off-site sources.

Mowing is not effective for controlling sulfur cinquefoil. It responds by developing heavier, horizontally spreading roots and increasing vegetation near ground level [70,91]. In Michigan, the mean dry weight of roots was much greater in plants growing in a mown strip (4.2 g per plant) than from plants in the adjacent undisturbed field (2.0 g per plant) [91].

Sulfur cinquefoil can be controlled by plowing and planting to a clean-cultivated crop [91]. In a sulfur cinquefoil-infested field in Michigan plowed in May, seedlings of sulfur cinquefoil were numerous by mid-June, as well as plants emerging from old rootstock [91]. Discing and reseeding to grass at a site in British Columbia resulted in complete control of sulfur cinquefoil. This, of course, cannot be applied over grassland and forest ecosystems that are managed in their natural state [60].

Fire: See Fire Management Considerations.

Biological: Biological control of invasive species has a long history, and there are many important considerations to be made before the implementation of a biological control program. The reader is referred to other sources (e.g. [65,92]) and the Weed Control Methods Handbook [83] for background information on biological control. Additionally, Cornell University, Texas A & M University, and NAPIS websites offer information on biological control.

There are currently no biological control agents available for sulfur cinquefoil, although a number of insects and fungi are associated with sulfur cinquefoil. A field survey in Eurasia identified 26 phytophagous insect species associated with sulfur cinquefoil in its native range [76]. A survey in the northeastern U.S. identified 47 species of phytophagous insects and pollinators on sulfur cinquefoil; among them are the strawberry root weevil and the strawberry aphid [8]. A rust fungus was found on sulfur cinquefoil at 79% of sampled sites in Montana. Root and crown boring insects were also collected from sulfur cinquefoil plants on numerous sites, and 6 species were isolated from these collections. Three of the identified species are known to be pests on strawberry (Fragaria spp.) [69]. The rust fungus is also known to occur on several of the sulfur cinquefoil populations in British Columbia. Three plant diseases have also been associated with sulfur cinquefoil populations in British Columbia [60].

A biological control program using insects against sulfur cinquefoil would be difficult due to the close genetic relationship between strawberries and cinquefoils, and probable attractiveness of strawberry to phytophagous insects that attack Potentilla [8]. Based on this close relationship, Batra [8] concludes that initiation of a biological control program for sulfur cinquefoil is not highly recommended. Additionally, a potential biocontrol agent must also be benign to (or incapable of occupying the habitats of) about 70 species of Potentilla with more than 80 subspecies and varieties that are found in North America [60]. Given the close relationship between sulfur cinquefoil and other Potentilla and Fragaria species, and the large number of native and introduced plants that must be screened, the search for a suitable biological control could be the longest and most costly in the history of North America [60].

Nonetheless, by 1996, 2 potential biological control agents were targeted for screening, a root moth (Tinthia myrmosaeformis) and a seed head weevil (Anthonomus rubripes) [67]. Field releases of any such insects would occur a decade or more in the future [70].

Sulfur cinquefoil is unpalatable to most livestock. Goats are the only animals that have been reported to select for sulfur cinquefoil [70]. Intensive grazing systems can increase sulfur cinquefoil utilization to about 5%, but sulfur cinquefoil appears to be one of the last plants selected [69,70].

Chemical: Herbicides are effective in gaining initial control of a new invasion (of small size) or a severe infestation, but are rarely a complete or long-term solution to invasive species management [12]. Herbicides are more effective on large infestations when incorporated into long-term management plans that include replacement of weeds with desirable species, careful land use management, and prevention of new infestations. Control with herbicides is temporary, as it does not change conditions that allow infestations to occur (e.g. [95]). See the Weed Control Methods Handbook [83] for considerations on the use of herbicides in natural areas and detailed information on specific chemicals.

Dicamba and clopyralid do not effectively control sulfur cinquefoil [66,70]. Picloram (applied in fall or spring), 2,4-D ester (applied in spring at rosette through bud stage), or a mix of dicamba and 2,4-D amine (applied at the rosette stage), are each effective at controlling sulfur cinquefoil. 2,4-D ester is suggested where potential water contamination is a consideration. On dryland sites, picloram may be preferred because its residual activity can suppress re-establishment from seeds in the soil seed bank [70], but it is still necessary to conduct appraisal surveys of treated sites in subsequent years, and plan systematic retreatments if eradication is the management goal [69].

Because sulfur cinquefoil is not sensitive to clopyralid [46], application of clopyralid to mixed stands of sulfur cinquefoil and spotted knapweed will depress the spotted knapweed without harming sulfur cinquefoil, thereby giving sulfur cinquefoil the competitive advantage [70].

Cultural: Because sulfur cinquefoil is intolerant of complete shade, land management practices that allow other vegetation to increase in cover, and therefore contribute to a concomitant decline in sulfur cinquefoil, should be promoted. Grazing should be managed with appropriate timing, intensity, frequency, and duration to leave adequate desirable vegetation. Soils disturbed by logging, construction, or other management activities should be revegetated as soon as possible with desirable species [60].

  • 12. Bussan, Alvin J.; Dyer, William E. 1999. Herbicides and rangeland. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 116-132. [35716]
  • 22. Forcella, Frank; Harvey, Stephen J. 1981. New and exotic weeds of Montana. II: Migration and distribution of 100 alien weeds in northwestern USA, 1881-1980. Cooperative Agreement No. 12-6-5-2383: Noxious and exotic weed survey of Montana. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 117 p. [44986]
  • 32. Hager, Heather A.; McCoy, Karen D. 1998. The implications of accepting untested hypotheses: a review of the effects of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North America. Biodiversity and Conservation. 7(8): 1069-1079. [37538]
  • 37. Jarecki, Chuck. 1990. Range weeds and ranch management. In: Roche, Ben F.; Roche, Cindy Talbott, eds. Range weeds revisited: Proceedings of a symposium: A 1989 Pacific Northwest range management short course; 1989 January 24-26; Spokane, WA. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Natural Resource Sciences, Cooperative Extension: 15-19. [14828]
  • 46. Lacey, C. A.; McKone, M. B.; Bedunah, D. 1989. Evaluation of clopyralid rate and time of application on spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam.). Western Society of Weed Science. 42: 280-284. [24587]
  • 48. Lajeunesse, Sherry. 1999. Dalmatian and yellow toadflax. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 202-216. [35724]
  • 50. Lesica, Peter. 1997. Monitoring native grasslands and the invasion of sulphur cinquefoil in the Valley View Hills, Lake County, Montana. 1996 Progress Report. Helena, MT: The Nature Conservancy. Unpublished report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 6 p. [45284]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 65. Rees, Norman E.; Quimby, Paul C., Jr.; Piper, Gary L.; [and others], eds. 1996. Biological control of weeds in the West. Bozeman, MT: Western Society of Weed Science. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Montana Department of Agriculture; Montana State University. 334 p. [37788]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 67. Rice, P.; Story, J. M. 1996. Sulfur cinquefoil--Potentilla recta. In: Rees, Norman E.; Quimby, Paul C., Jr.; Piper, Gary L.; Coombs, Eric M.; Turner, Charles E.; Spencer, Neal R.; Knutson, Lloyd V., eds. Biological control of weeds in the West. Bozeman, MT: Western Society of Weed Science. In cooperation with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Montana Department of Agriculture; Montana State University: Section II. [44868]
  • 68. Rice, Peter M. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: a new threat to biological diversity. Western Wildlands. 17(2): 34-40. [16161]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 76. Schaffner, U.; Tosevski, I. 1994. Surveys and investigations on potential control agents of sulphur cinquefoil, Potentilla recta. In: International Institute of Biological Control annual report. Wallingford, Oxon, UK: International Institute of Biological Control: 36. [44977]
  • 8. Batra, S. W. T. 1979. Insects associated with weeds in the northeastern United States. II. Cinquefoils, Potentilla norvegica and P. recta (Rosaceae). New York Entomological Society. 87(3): 216-222. [24077]
  • 83. Tu, Mandy; Hurd, Callie; Randall, John M., eds. 2001. Weed control methods handbook: tools and techniques for use in natural areas. Davis, CA: The Nature Conservancy. 194 p. [37787]
  • 84. Tyser, Robin W.; Worley, Christopher A. 1992. Alien flora in grasslands adjacent to road and trail corridors in Glacier National Park, Montana (U.S.A.). Conservation Biology. 6(2): 253-262. [19435]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]
  • 92. Wilson, Linda M.; McCaffrey, Joseph P. 1999. Biological control of noxious rangeland weeds. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 97-115. [35715]
  • 95. Youtie, Berta; Soll, Jonathan. 1990. Diffuse knapweed control on the Tom McCall Preserve and Mayer State Park. Unpublished report (prepared for the Mazama Research Committee) on file at: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. 18 p. [38353]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the term: cover

There is little information on use of sulfur cinquefoil by grazing animals, although it is thought to be avoided by most grazing animals [70]. Utilization of sulfur cinquefoil by cattle was less than 1% on 98% of 85 sites studied in Montana; and 1-5% on the remaining 2% of these sites. This trace grazing usually consisted of removal of buds and flower tops from a small number of plants. Intensive grazing systems can increase utilization to above 5%, but sulfur cinquefoil appears to be one of the last plants selected [69,70].

Other studies indicate that cinquefoil species generally make up a very small percentage of the diets of grazing animals. In the lower Rocky Mountain Trench of British Columbia, cattle, elk and mule deer diets averaged 0.4, 0.2, and 0.3%, respectively, cinquefoil species (of which sulfur cinquefoil was a constituent) [91]. Campbell and Johnson [14] found that cinquefoil species comprised 2.5, 0.3, 1.3, and 0.2% of winter, spring, summer, and fall diets, respectively, of mule deer in Washington. Winter elk diets in New Mexico contained 1.1% cinquefoil species [75].

Feeding by small mammals or birds on sulfur cinquefoil plants or seeds is unknown [60].

Palatability/nutritional value: According to reviews by Powell [60] and Werner and Soule [91], sulfur cinquefoil has a tannin content of 17-22% dry weight that likely lowers its palatability relative to many other forage and browse species. Even when forage and browse choice is limited, cattle have been reported to graze the bitter-flavored spotted knapweed preferentially over sulfur cinquefoil [66]. There are no reports of sulfur cinquefoil toxicity to animals that consume it.

Cover value: No information

  • 14. Campbell, Erick G.; Johnson, Rolf L. 1983. Food habits of mountain goats, mule deer, and cattle on Chopaka Mountain, Washington, 1977-1980. Journal of Range Management. 36(4): 488-491. [44985]
  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]
  • 66. Rice, P. M.; Lacey, C. A.; Lacey, J. R.; Johnson, R. 1991. Sulfur cinquefoil: Biology, ecology and management in pasture and rangeland. Extension Bulletin 109. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University, Extension Service. 9 p. [Pamphlet]. [18996]
  • 69. Rice, Peter M. 1993. Distribution and ecology of sulfur cinquefoil in Montana, Idaho and Wyoming. Final report: Montana Noxious Weed Trust Fund Project. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Agriculture. 11 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [44978]
  • 70. Rice, Peter. 1999. Sulfur cinquefoil. In: Sheley, Roger L.; Petroff, Janet K., eds. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press: 382-388. [35746]
  • 75. Rowland, M. M.; Alldredge, A. W.; Ellis, J. E.; Weber, B. J.; White, G. C. 1983. Comparative winter diets of elk in New Mexico. Journal of Wildlife Management. 47(4): 924-932. [44982]
  • 91. Werner, Patricia A.; Soule, Judith D. 1976. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Potentilla recta L., P. norvegica L., and P. argentea L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 56: 591-603. [1272]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Other uses and values

A review by Powell [60] indicates that sulfur cinquefoil may have been used as a folk medicine in eastern Europe. The possible medicinal value, however, has not been thoroughly studied [60].

Because of its perennial nature and showy flowers, sulfur cinquefoil is also used in horticulture [60].

  • 60. Powell, George W. 1996. Analysis of sulphur cinquefoil in British Columbia. Working Paper 16. Victoria, BC: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Research Program. 36 p. [44979]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Potentilla recta

Potentilla recta (Sulphur Cinquefoil or Rough-fruited Cinquefoil) is a species of cinquefoil. It is native to Eurasia but it is present in North America as an introduced species, ranging through almost the entire continent except the northernmost part of Canada and Alaska.

The plant probably originated in the Mediterranean Basin, and it was first collected in the 19th century in Ontario and in 1914 in British Columbia.[1] It is known as a minor noxious weed in some areas.[1] It occurs in many types of habitat, including disturbed, weedy places.

Description[edit]

Sulphur cinquefoil is a perennial herb and is a tufted plant growing from a woody taproot or caudex. It produces upright to erect leafy stems up to 80 cm (31 in) tall. The upper part of the stem is branched and densely hairy, and it also bears some glandular hairs. The lower leaves have long stalks and the stem leaves are arranged alternately and have short stalks. All the leaves are palmate, divided into usually six or seven leaflets, sometimes up to nine, with the uppermost ones just having three leaflets. The green to yellow-green leaves may be up to 15 cm (6 in) long, with the central leaflet reaching 8 cm (3.1 in) in length. The leaflets are linear-lanceolate, hairy in texture and toothed along the edges. The inflorescence is a cyme of several flowers which are generally light to pale yellow in color, with white to gold-flowered individuals occurring at times. Each flower has five calyx lobes, five broad, shallowly-notched petals, thirty stamens, many pistils and a separate gynoecium. The fruit is a receptacle containing several glossy, pale brown achenes. The plant may reproduce by seed or vegetatively by sprouting new shoots from its caudex. Sulphur cinquefoil flowers from June to August.[1][2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Sulphur cinquefoil is native to much of Europe, Asia, and parts of North America, and it can be found in other parts of the world as an introduced species.[1] Its natural habitat is arable fields, gardens, banks, hedgerows, wasteland, logging clearings, loading areas and occasionally shores.[2]

References[edit]

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

The currently accepted scientific name for sulfur cinquefoil is Potentilla
recta L. (Rosaceae) [25,28,35,38,40,41,47,57,62,72,88,90,94].


Sulfur cinquefoil is closely related to other members of the genus Potentilla. Hybrids of
sulfur cinquefoil and P. hirta are reported to occur naturally and have been produced
under controlled conditions [27].

  • 25. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 27. Goswami, D. Acharya; Matfield, B. 1975. Cytogenetic studies in the genus Potentilla L. New Phytologist. 75(1): 135-146. [44976]
  • 28. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 35. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 38. Jones, Stanley D.; Wipff, Joseph K.; Montgomery, Paul M. 1997. Vascular plants of Texas. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. 404 p. [28762]
  • 40. Kartesz, John T.; Meacham, Christopher A. 1999. Synthesis of the North American flora (Windows Version 1.0), [CD-ROM]. Available: North Carolina Botanical Garden. In cooperation with the Nature Conservancy, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service [2001, January 16]. [36715]
  • 41. Kartesz, John Thomas. 1988. A flora of Nevada. Reno, NV: University of Nevada. 1729 p. [In 3 volumes]. Dissertation. [42426]
  • 47. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 57. Mohlenbrock, Robert H. 1986. [Revised edition]. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. 507 p. [17383]
  • 62. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 72. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 88. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 90. Weber, William A.; Wittmann, Ronald C. 1996. Colorado flora: eastern slope. 2nd ed. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado. 524 p. [27572]
  • 94. Wunderlin, Richard P. 1998. Guide to the vascular plants of Florida. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. 806 p. [28655]

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Common Names

sulfur cinquefoil

sulphur cinquefoil

rough-fruited cinquefoil

upright cinquefoil

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!