Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Arabic (3) (learn more)

Overview

Brief Summary

Malus domestica, apple (also known as orchard apple and table apple) is a small deciduous tree in the Rosaceae (rose family) that originated in western Asia and is now one of the most widely cultivated fruit trees. Apple trees, which blossom in the spring and produce fruit in the fall, originated and were domesticated in western Asia, where the wild ancestor, M. sieversii still grows today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, dating at least to the Phoenicians. Apples were brought to North America by European colonists, and according to the well-known story, spread throughout the Midwestern states by Johnny Appleseed in the 1800s, described in this Wikipedia article, in this YouTube clip from the 1948 animated Walt Disney movie, and in a video based on Michael Pollan’s popular book, Botany of Desire. Apples have been present in the mythology and religions of many cultures, including Norse, Greek and Christian traditions. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded, leading to new understandings of disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

Apple trees are typically 4–12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are 3–10 cm long, alternate, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs, and have five petals, which may be white, pink or red, and are perfect, with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen, and a half-inferior ovary; flowering occurs in the spring after 50–80 growing degree days (varying greatly according to subspecies and cultivar).

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including in cooking, fresh eating and cider production. Domestic apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means.

At least 69.6 million metric tons of apples were commercially harvested worldwide in 2010 from 4.7 million hectares of orchards, with a value of over $14.4 billion. China produced about 45% of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 7.5% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Poland, Iran, Italy, and France.

Apples are often eaten raw, but are often processed into juice or applesauce, and can also be found in many foods (especially desserts). Many beneficial health effects have been found from eating apples; however, the seeds are slightly poisonous and two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit (see details in Wikipedia article, below).

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

© Jacqueline Courteau, modified from Wikipedia

Supplier: Jacqueline Courteau

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Malus domestica

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis pomi sucks sap of live flower of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: mid 3-

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Chat Fruit phytoplasma infects and damages live, dwarfed fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / spot causer
Apple Flat Limb causes spots on live branch (esp old) of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Green Crinkle infects and damages live, dimpled, cracked, warty fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Leaf Pucker infects and damages live fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / spot causer
Apple Mosaic virus causes spots on live leaf of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: early summer-

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Robbery Wood phytoplasma infects and damages live Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Rough Skin infects and damages live fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Star Crack infects and damages live fruit of Malus domestica

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Malus domestica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Asteromella coelomycetous anamorph of Asteromella mali causes spots on live leaf of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Athelia epiphylla infects and damages fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Bjerkandera adusta parasitises trunk (wounded) of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Botryosphaeria obtusa infects and damages stored, rotten fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / open feeder
epiphyllous, colonial Bryobia grazes on live leaf of Malus domestica

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Camarosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Camarosporium karstenii is saprobic on dead wood of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
fruitbody of Chondrostereum purpureum infects and damages trunk (wounded) of Malus domestica

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Cydia pomonella feeds within fruit of Malus domestica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Cylindrobasidium laeve is saprobic on stored fruit of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
small, scattered, immersed then putular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora mali infects and damages cankered twig of Malus domestica
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, erumpent stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora microspora is saprobic on twig of Malus domestica

Foodplant / saprobe
long covered, but eventually erumpent through fissure pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on dead twig of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
perithecium of Diaporthe mali infects and damages branch of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
crowded, superficial stroma of Diaporthe perniciosa infects and damages stored (long term) fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / saprobe
thinly stromatic pycnidium of Dothiorella coelomycetous anamorph of Dothiorella pyrenophora var. mali is saprobic on dead twig of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: 5,9

Foodplant / sap sucker
Dysaphis devecta sucks sap of live flower of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: mid 3-

Foodplant / sap sucker
Dysaphis plantaginea sucks sap of live flower of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: mid 3-

Foodplant / sap sucker
Edwardsiana rosae sucks sap of live leaf of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: summer
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Eriosoma lanigerum causes gall of white woolly-covered branch of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: 3-

Foodplant / pathogen
Erwinia amylovora infects and damages brown shoot of Malus domestica

Foodplant / saprobe
more or less erumpent or superficial, very densely clustered, often stipitate, black stroma (pycnidial) of Fuckelia coelomycetous anamorph of Fuckelia conspicua is saprobic on bark of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: autumn

Foodplant / pathogen
Gibberella baccata infects and damages fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / spot causer
colony of Gloeodes anamorph of Gloeodes pomigena causes spots on live, sometimes dwarfed fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Glomerella cingulata infects and damages fruit of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
hypophyllous aecium of Gymnosporangium cornutum causes gall of leaf of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / gall
aecium of Gymnosporangium juniperi-virginianae causes gall of live fruit of Malus domestica

Plant / resting place / within
ovum of Hoplocampa testudinea may be found in ovary of Malus domestica
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Laetiporus sulphureus parasitises trunk of old tree of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: early summer to autumn

Foodplant / pathogen
Leptosphaeria coniothyrium infects and damages cankered bark of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / miner
caterpillar of Lyonetia clerkella mines live leaf of Malus domestica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / web feeder
communal caterpillar of Malacosoma neustria feeds from web on live leaf of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilia dematiaceous anamorph of Monilinia fructicola infects and damages brown rotted fruit of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
pseudosclerotial stroma of Monilinia fructigena infects and damages live, brown-rotten fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / saprobe
Mucor piriformis is saprobic on rotting fruit of Malus domestica

Plant / associate
extensive, velvety colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella tulasnei is associated with slowly rotting fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Tubercularia anamorph of Nectria cinnabarina infects and damages branch of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / pathogen
Nectria galligena infects and damages brown, non-falling fruit of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Cylindrocarpon anamorph of Nectria punicea infects and damages stored fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Ochropsora ariae parasitises live leaf of Malus domestica
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Otiorhynchus singularis feeds on live Malus domestica

Foodplant / web feeder
hypophyllous, colonial Panonychus ulmi feeds from web on live leaf of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: 4-

Foodplant / sap sucker
Pentatoma rufipes sucks sap of Malus domestica
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Pezicula corticola infects and damages cankered bark of Malus domestica

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma pomorum causes spots on leaf of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
scattered or clustered, immersed, then semi-immersed, finally superficial pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis perniciosa infects and damages cankered fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
densely gregarious, immersed pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis stictostoma infects and damages twig of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: 10

Lichen / associate
Physatocheila smreczynskii is associated with lichen-covered tree of Malus domestica

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Phytomyza heringiana may be found in leaf-mine of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora cactorum infects and damages fallen, leathery, cracking fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Phytophthora syringae infects and damages fallen, leathery, cracking fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Macrosporium anamorph of Pleospora herbarum infects and damages stored fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
partially immersed perithecium of Pleospora pomorum infects and damages stored fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Podosphaera leucotricha parasitises live Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Potebniamyces pyri infects and damages cankered bark of Malus domestica

Foodplant / open feeder
gregarious larva of Pristiphora moesta grazes on leaf of Malus domestica
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Psylla mali sucks sap of leaf bud of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer infects and damages fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer infects and damages stored fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhopalosiphum insertum sucks sap of live flower of Malus domestica
Remarks: season: mid 3-

Foodplant / pathogen
Rosellinia necatrix infects and damages yellowing, prematurely falling leaf of Malus domestica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, clustered thyriothecium of Schizothyrium pomi is saprobic on live fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Sclerotinia laxa f. mali infects and damages live, wilted flower of Malus domestica

Foodplant / saprobe
subepidermal Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria ralfsii is saprobic on decayed fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / open feeder
caterpillar of Smerinthus ocellata grazes on live leaf of Malus domestica

Foodplant / pathogen
Trichothecium roseum infects and damages lesioned fruit of Malus domestica

Foodplant / hemiparasite
haustorium of Viscum album is hemiparasitic on branch of Malus domestica
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Xyleborus dispar feeds within live cambium of Malus domestica

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Zeuzera pyrina feeds within live trunk of Malus domestica

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Star Crack infects and damages live fruit of Malus domestica cv. Cox's Orange Pippin
Other: major host/prey

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Foodplant / pathogen
Apple Robbery Wood phytoplasma infects and damages live, rubbery, flexible, pendulous branch (young) of Malus domestica cv 'Lord Lambourne'

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Apple

This article is about the fruit. For the technology company, see Apple Inc.. For other uses, see Apple (disambiguation).
"Apple tree" redirects here. For other uses, see Apple tree (disambiguation).

The apple tree (Malus domestica) is a deciduous tree in the rose family best known for its sweet, pomaceous fruit, the apple. It is cultivated worldwide as a fruit tree, and is the most widely grown species in the genus Malus. The tree originated in Central Asia, where its wild ancestor, Malus sieversii, is still found today. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions.

Apple trees are large if grown from seed, but small if grafted onto roots (rootstock). There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples, resulting in a range of desired characteristics. Different cultivars are bred for various tastes and uses, including cooking, eating raw and cider production. Apples are generally propagated by grafting, although wild apples grow readily from seed. Trees and fruit are prone to a number of fungal, bacterial and pest problems, which can be controlled by a number of organic and non-organic means. In 2010, the fruit's genome was decoded as part of research on disease control and selective breeding in apple production.

About 69 million tons of apples were grown worldwide in 2010, and China produced almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. Turkey is third, followed by Italy, India and Poland. Apples are often eaten raw, but can also be found in many prepared foods (especially desserts) and drinks. Many beneficial health effects are thought to result from eating apples; however, two forms of allergies are seen to various proteins found in the fruit.

Botanical information[edit]

Blossoms, fruits, and leaves of the apple tree (Malus domestica)

The apple is a deciduous tree, generally standing 1.8 to 4.6 m (6 to 15 ft) tall in cultivation and up to 39 ft (12 m) in the wild.[3] When cultivated, the size, shape and branch density is determined by rootstock selection and trimming method. The leaves are alternately arranged dark green-colored simple ovals with serrated margins and slightly downy undersides.[4]

Blossoms are produced in spring simultaneously with the budding of the leaves, and are produced on spurs and some long shoots. The 3 to 4 cm (1.2 to 1.6 in) flowers are white with a pink tinge that gradually fades, five petaled, with an inflorescence consisting of a cyme with 4–6 flowers. The central flower of the inflorescence is called the "king bloom"; it opens first, and can develop a larger fruit.[4][5]

The fruit matures in late summer or autumn, and varieties exist with a wide range of sizes. Commercial growers aim to produce an apple that is 7.0 to 8.3 cm (2.75 to 3.25 in) in diameter, due to market preference. Some consumers, especially those in Japan, prefer a larger apple, while apples below 5.7 cm (2.25 in) are generally used for making juice and have little fresh market value. The skin of ripe apples is generally red, yellow, green, pink, or russetted although many bi- or tri-colored varieties may be found.[6] The skin may also be wholly or partly russeted i.e. rough and brown. The skin is covered in a protective layer of epicuticular wax,[7] The flesh is generally pale yellowish-white,[6] though pink or yellow flesh is also known.

Wild ancestors[edit]

Main article: Malus sieversii

The original wild ancestor of Malus domestica was Malus sieversii, found growing wild in the mountains of Central Asia in southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Xinjiang, China.[4][8] Cultivation of the species, most likely beginning on the forested flanks of the Tian Shan mountains, progressed over a long period of time and permitted secondary introgression of genes from other species into the open-pollinated seeds. Significant exchange with Malus sylvestris, the crabapple, resulted in current populations of apples to be more related to crabapples than to the more morphologically similar progenitor Malus sieversii. In strains without recent admixture the contribution of the latter predominates.[9][10][11]

Genome[edit]

In 2010, an Italian-led consortium announced they had decoded the complete genome of the apple in collaboration with horticultural genomicists at Washington State University,[12] using the Golden delicious variety.[13] It had about 57,000 genes, the highest number of any plant genome studied to date[14] and more genes than the human genome (about 30,000).[15] This new understanding of the apple genome will help scientists in identifying genes and gene variants that contribute to resistance to disease and drought, and other desirable characteristics. Understanding the genes behind these characteristics will allow scientists to perform more knowledgeable selective breeding. Decoding the genome also provided proof that Malus sieversii was the wild ancestor of the domestic apple—an issue that had been long-debated in the scientific community.[16]

History[edit]

Wild Malus sieversii apple in Kazakhstan

The center of diversity of the genus Malus is in eastern Turkey. The apple tree was perhaps the earliest tree to be cultivated,[17] and its fruits have been improved through selection over thousands of years. Alexander the Great is credited with finding dwarfed apples in Kazakhstan in 328 BCE;[4] those he brought back to Macedonia might have been the progenitors of dwarfing root stocks. Winter apples, picked in late autumn and stored just above freezing, have been an important food in Asia and Europe for millennia.[17]

Apples were brought to North America by colonists in the 17th century,[4] and the first apple orchard on the North American continent was planted in Boston by Reverend William Blaxton in 1625.[18] The only apples native to North America are crab apples, which were once called "common apples".[19] Apple varieties brought as seed from Europe were spread along Native American trade routes, as well as being cultivated on Colonial farms. An 1845 United States apples nursery catalogue sold 350 of the "best" varieties, showing the proliferation of new North American varieties by the early 19th century.[19] In the 20th century, irrigation projects in Eastern Washington began and allowed the development of the multibillion dollar fruit industry, of which the apple is the leading product.[4]

Until the 20th century, farmers stored apples in frostproof cellars during the winter for their own use or for sale. Improved transportation of fresh apples by train and road replaced the necessity for storage.[20][21] In the 21st century, long-term storage again came into popularity, as "controlled atmosphere" facilities were used to keep apples fresh year-round. Controlled atmosphere facilities use high humidity and low oxygen and carbon dioxide levels to maintain fruit freshness.[22]

Cultural aspects[edit]

Main article: Apple (symbolism)
"Brita as Iduna" (1901) by Carl Larsson

Germanic paganism[edit]

In Norse mythology, the goddess Iðunn is portrayed in the Prose Edda (written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson) as providing apples to the gods that give them eternal youthfulness. English scholar H. R. Ellis Davidson links apples to religious practices in Germanic paganism, from which Norse paganism developed. She points out that buckets of apples were found in the Oseberg ship burial site in Norway, and that fruit and nuts (Iðunn having been described as being transformed into a nut in Skáldskaparmál) have been found in the early graves of the Germanic peoples in England and elsewhere on the continent of Europe, which may have had a symbolic meaning, and that nuts are still a recognized symbol of fertility in southwest England.[23]

Davidson notes a connection between apples and the Vanir, a tribe of gods associated with fertility in Norse mythology, citing an instance of eleven "golden apples" being given to woo the beautiful Gerðr by Skírnir, who was acting as messenger for the major Vanir god Freyr in stanzas 19 and 20 of Skírnismál. Davidson also notes a further connection between fertility and apples in Norse mythology in chapter 2 of the Völsunga saga when the major goddess Frigg sends King Rerir an apple after he prays to Odin for a child, Frigg's messenger (in the guise of a crow) drops the apple in his lap as he sits atop a mound.[24] Rerir's wife's consumption of the apple results in a six-year pregnancy and the Caesarean section birth of their son—the hero Völsung.[25]

Further, Davidson points out the "strange" phrase "Apples of Hel" used in an 11th-century poem by the skald Thorbiorn Brúnarson. She states this may imply that the apple was thought of by Brúnarson as the food of the dead. Further, Davidson notes that the potentially Germanic goddess Nehalennia is sometimes depicted with apples and that parallels exist in early Irish stories. Davidson asserts that while cultivation of the apple in Northern Europe extends back to at least the time of the Roman Empire and came to Europe from the Near East, the native varieties of apple trees growing in Northern Europe are small and bitter. Davidson concludes that in the figure of Iðunn "we must have a dim reflection of an old symbol: that of the guardian goddess of the life-giving fruit of the other world."[23]

Greek mythology[edit]

Heracles with the apple of Hesperides

Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit, other than berries, including nuts, as late as the 17th century.[26] For instance, in Greek mythology, the Greek hero Heracles, as a part of his Twelve Labours, was required to travel to the Garden of the Hesperides and pick the golden apples off the Tree of Life growing at its center.[27][28][29]

The Greek goddess of discord, Eris, became disgruntled after she was excluded from the wedding of Peleus and Thetis.[30] In retaliation, she tossed a golden apple inscribed Καλλίστη (Kalliste, sometimes transliterated Kallisti, 'For the most beautiful one'), into the wedding party. Three goddesses claimed the apple: Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. Paris of Troy was appointed to select the recipient. After being bribed by both Hera and Athena, Aphrodite tempted him with the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. He awarded the apple to Aphrodite, thus indirectly causing the Trojan War.

The apple was thus considered, in ancient Greece, to be sacred to Aphrodite, and to throw an apple at someone was to symbolically declare one's love; and similarly, to catch it was to symbolically show one's acceptance of that love.[31] An epigram claiming authorship by Plato states:

I throw the apple at you, and if you are willing to love me, take it and share your girlhood with me; but if your thoughts are what I pray they are not, even then take it, and consider how short-lived is beauty.

PlatoEpigram VII[32]

Atalanta, also of Greek mythology, raced all her suitors in an attempt to avoid marriage. She outran all but Hippomenes (also known as Melanion, a name possibly derived from melon the Greek word for both "apple" and fruit in general),[28] who defeated her by cunning, not speed. Hippomenes knew that he could not win in a fair race, so he used three golden apples (gifts of Aphrodite, the goddess of love) to distract Atalanta. It took all three apples and all of his speed, but Hippomenes was finally successful, winning the race and Atalanta's hand.[27]

The forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden[edit]

Adam and Eve by Albrecht Dürer (1507), showcasing the apple as a symbol of sin.

Though the forbidden fruit of Eden in the Book of Genesis is not identified, popular Christian tradition has held that it was an apple that Eve coaxed Adam to share with her.[33] The origin of the popular identification with a fruit unknown in the Middle East in biblical times is found in confusion between the Latin words mālum (an apple) and mălum (an evil), each of which is normally written malum.[34] The tree of the forbidden fruit is called "the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" in Genesis 2:17, and the Latin for "good and evil" is bonum et malum.[35]

Renaissance painters may also have been influenced by the story of the golden apples in the Garden of Hesperides. As a result, in the story of Adam and Eve, the apple became a symbol for knowledge, immortality, temptation, the fall of man into sin, and sin itself. The larynx in the human throat has been called Adam's apple because of a notion that it was caused by the forbidden fruit remaining in the throat of Adam.[33] The apple as symbol of sexual seduction has been used to imply human sexuality, possibly in an ironic vein.[33]

Cultivars[edit]

Red and green apples in India

There are more than 7,500 known cultivars of apples.[36] Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock.[37] Different cultivars are available for temperate and subtropical climates. The UK's National Fruit Collection, which is the responsibility of the Department of Environment Food and Rural Affairs, has a collection of over 2,000 accessions in Kent.[38] The University of Reading, which is responsible for developing the UK national collection database, provides access to search the national collection. The University of Reading's work is part of the European Cooperative Programme for Plant Genetic Resources of which there are 38 countries participating in the Malus/Pyrus work group.[39]

The UK's national fruit collection database contains a wealth of information on the characteristics and origin of many apples, including alternative names for what is essentially the same 'genetic' apple variety. Most of these cultivars are bred for eating fresh (dessert apples), though some are cultivated specifically for cooking (cooking apples) or producing cider. Cider apples are typically too tart and astringent to eat fresh, but they give the beverage a rich flavor that dessert apples cannot.[40]

Commercially popular apple cultivars are soft but crisp. Other desired qualities in modern commercial apple breeding are a colorful skin, absence of russeting, ease of shipping, lengthy storage ability, high yields, disease resistance, common apple shape, and developed flavor.[37] Modern apples are generally sweeter than older cultivars, as popular tastes in apples have varied over time. Most North Americans and Europeans favor sweet, subacid apples, but tart apples have a strong minority following.[41] Extremely sweet apples with barely any acid flavor are popular in Asia[41] and especially Indian Subcontinent .[40]

Old cultivars are often oddly shaped, russeted, and have a variety of textures and colors. Some find them to have a better flavor than modern cultivars,[42] but may have other problems which make them commercially unviable from low yield, disease susceptibility, or poor tolerance for storage or transport. A few old cultivars are still produced on a large scale, but many have been preserved by home gardeners and farmers that sell directly to local markets. Many unusual and locally important cultivars with their own unique taste and appearance exist; apple conservation campaigns have sprung up around the world to preserve such local cultivars from extinction. In the United Kingdom, old cultivars such as 'Cox's Orange Pippin' and 'Egremont Russet' are still commercially important even though by modern standards they are low yielding and susceptible to disease.[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Breeding[edit]

Apple pot

In the wild, apples grow readily from seeds. However, like most perennial fruits, apples are ordinarily propagated asexually by grafting. This is because seedling apples are an example of "extreme heterozygotes", in that rather than inheriting DNA from their parents to create a new apple with those characteristics, they are instead significantly different from their parents.[43] Triploid varieties have an additional reproductive barrier in that 3 sets of chromosomes cannot be divided evenly during meiosis, yielding unequal segregation of the chromosomes (aneuploids). Even in the case when a triploid plant can produce a seed (apples are an example), it occurs infrequently, and seedlings rarely survive.[44]

Because apples do not breed true when planted as seeds, grafting is generally used to produce new apple trees. The rootstock used for the bottom of the graft can be selected to produce trees of a large variety of sizes, as well as changing the winter hardiness, insect and disease resistance, and soil preference of the resulting tree. Dwarf rootstocks can be used to produce very small trees (less than 3.0 m (10 ft) high at maturity), which bear fruit earlier in their life cycle than full size trees.[45] Dwarf rootstocks for apple trees can be traced as far back as 300 BC, to the area of Persia and Asia Minor. Alexander the Great sent samples of dwarf apple trees to Aristotle's Lyceum. Dwarf rootstocks became common by the 15th century, and later went through several cycles of popularity and decline throughout the world.[46] The majority of the rootstocks used today to control size in apples were developed in England in the early 1900s. The East Malling Research Station conducted extensive research into rootstocks, and today their rootstocks are given an "M" prefix to designate their origin. Rootstocks marked with an "MM" prefix are Malling-series varieties later crossed with trees of the Northern Spy variety in Merton, England.[47]

Most new apple cultivars originate as seedlings, which either arise by chance or are bred by deliberately crossing cultivars with promising characteristics.[48] The words 'seedling', 'pippin', and 'kernel' in the name of an apple cultivar suggest that it originated as a seedling. Apples can also form bud sports (mutations on a single branch). Some bud sports turn out to be improved strains of the parent cultivar. Some differ sufficiently from the parent tree to be considered new cultivars.[49]

Since the 1930s, the Excelsior Experiment Station at the University of Minnesota has introduced a steady progression of important apples that are widely grown, both commercially and by local orchardists, throughout Minnesota and Wisconsin. Its most important contributions have included 'Haralson' (which is the most widely cultivated apple in Minnesota), 'Wealthy', 'Honeygold', and 'Honeycrisp'.

Apples have been acclimatized in Ecuador at very high altitudes, where they provide crops twice per year because of constant temperate conditions year-round.[50]

Pollination[edit]

Apple blossom from an old Ayrshire variety

Apples are self-incompatible; they must cross-pollinate to develop fruit. During the flowering each season, apple growers often utilize pollinators to carry pollen. Honey bees are most commonly used. Orchard mason bees are also used as supplemental pollinators in commercial orchards. Bumblebee queens are sometimes present in orchards, but not usually in enough quantity to be significant pollinators.[49]

There are four to seven pollination groups in apples, depending on climate:

  • Group A – Early flowering, 1 to 3 May in England (Gravenstein, Red Astrachan)
  • Group B – 4 to 7 May (Idared, McIntosh)
  • Group C – Mid-season flowering, 8 to 11 May (Granny Smith, Cox's Orange Pippin)
  • Group D – Mid/late season flowering, 12 to 15 May (Golden Delicious, Calville blanc d'hiver)
  • Group E – Late flowering, 16 to 18 May (Braeburn, Reinette d'Orléans)
  • Group F – 19 to 23 May (Suntan)
  • Group H – 24 to 28 May (Court-Pendu Gris) (also called Court-Pendu plat)

One cultivar can be pollinated by a compatible cultivar from the same group or close (A with A, or A with B, but not A with C or D).[51]

Varieties are sometimes classified by the day of peak bloom in the average 30-day blossom period, with pollenizers selected from varieties within a 6-day overlap period.

Maturation and harvest[edit]

Cultivars vary in their yield and the ultimate size of the tree, even when grown on the same rootstock. Some cultivars, if left unpruned, will grow very large, which allows them to bear much more fruit, but makes harvesting very difficult. Depending on the tree density (number of trees planted per unit surface area), mature trees typically bear 40–200 kg (88–441 lb) of apples each year, though productivity can be close to zero in poor years. Apples are harvested using three-point ladders that are designed to fit amongst the branches. Trees grafted on dwarfing rootstocks will bear about 10–80 kg (22–176 lb) of fruit per year.[49]

Crops ripen at different times of the year according to the variety of apple. Varieties that yield their crop in the summer include Gala, Golden Supreme, McIntosh, Transparent, Primate, Sweet Bough, and Duchess; fall producers include Fuji, Jonagold, Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Chenango, Gravenstein, Wealthy, McIntosh, Snow, and Blenheim; winter producers include Winesap, Granny Smith, King, Wagener, Swayzie, Greening, and Tolman Sweet.[19]

Storage[edit]

Commercially, apples can be stored for some months in controlled-atmosphere chambers to delay ethylene-induced ripening. Apples are commonly stored in chambers with higher concentrations of carbon dioxide and high air filtration. This prevents ethylene concentrations from rising to higher amounts and preventing ripening from occurring too quickly. Ripening continues when the fruit is removed from storage.[52] For home storage, most varieties of apple can be held for approximately two weeks when kept at the coolest part of the refrigerator (i.e. below 5 °C). Some types, including the Granny Smith and Fuji, can be stored up to a year without significant degradation.[53][54]

Pests and diseases[edit]

Leaves with significant insect damage

Apple trees are susceptible to a number of fungal and bacterial diseases and insect pests. Many commercial orchards pursue an aggressive program of chemical sprays to maintain high fruit quality, tree health, and high yields. A trend in orchard management is the use of organic methods. These ban the use of some pesticides, though some older pesticides are allowed. Organic methods include, for instance, introducing its natural predator to reduce the population of a particular pest.

A wide range of pests and diseases can affect the plant; three of the more common diseases/pests are mildew, aphids and apple scab.

  • Mildew: which is characterized by light grey powdery patches appearing on the leaves, shoots and flowers, normally in spring. The flowers will turn a creamy yellow color and will not develop correctly. This can be treated in a manner not dissimilar from treating Botrytis; eliminating the conditions which caused the disease in the first place and burning the infected plants are among the recommended actions to take.[55]
  • Aphids: There are five species of aphids commonly found on apples: apple grain aphid, rosy apple aphid, apple aphid, spirea aphid and the woolly apple aphid. The aphid species can be identified by their color, the time of year when they are present and by differences in the cornicles, which are small paired projections from the rear of aphids.[55] Aphids feed on foliage using needle-like mouth parts to suck out plant juices. When present in high numbers, certain species reduce tree growth and vigor.[56]
  • Apple scab: Apple scab causes leaves to develop olive-brown spots with a velvety texture that later turn brown and become cork-like in texture. The disease also affects the fruit, which also develops similar brown spots with velvety or cork-like textures. Apple scab is spread through fungus growing in old apple leaves on the ground and spreads during warm spring weather to infect the new year's growth.[57]

Among the most serious disease problems are fireblight, a bacterial disease; and Gymnosporangium rust, and black spot, two fungal diseases.[56] Codling moths and apple maggots are two other pests which affect apple trees. Young apple trees are also prone to mammal pests like mice and deer, which feed on the soft bark of the trees, especially in winter.[57]

Production[edit]

Top 10 Apple Producing Countries
(in metric tonnes)
RankCountry201020112012
1 China33,263,00035,985,00037,000,000
2 United States4,214,5994,275,1084,110,046
3 Turkey2,600,0002,680,0752,889,000
4 Poland1,877,9062,493,0782,877,000
5 India1,777,2002,891,0002,203,000
6 Italy2,204,9722,411,2011,991,312
7 Iran1,662,4301,842,9721,700,000
8 Chile1,624,2421,588,3471,625,000
9 Russia992,0001,200,0001,403,000
10 France1,778,4331,857,3491,382,901
World60,271,19165,800,14563,454,495
Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organization [58]

About 63 million tonnes of apples were grown worldwide in 2012, with China producing almost half of this total. The United States is the second-leading producer, with more than 6% of world production. The largest exporters of apples in 2009 were China, U.S., Turkey, Poland, Italy, Iran, and India while the biggest importers in the same year were Russia, Germany, the UK and the Netherlands.[59]

In the United States, more than 60% of all the apples sold commercially are grown in Washington.[60] Imported apples from New Zealand and other more temperate areas are competing with U.S. production and increasing each year.[61]

Most of Australia's apple production is for domestic consumption. Imports from New Zealand have been disallowed under quarantine regulations for fireblight since 1921.[62]

Other countries with a significant production are Brazil, Argentina, Ukraine, Germany and South Africa.

Nutrition[edit]

Apples, with skin (edible parts)
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy218 kJ (52 kcal)
13.81 g
Sugars10.39
Dietary fiber2.4 g
0.17 g
0.26 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(0%)
3 μg
(0%)
27 μg
29 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(1%)
0.017 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.026 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.091 mg
(1%)
0.061 mg
Vitamin B6
(3%)
0.041 mg
Folate (B9)
(1%)
3 μg
Vitamin C
(6%)
4.6 mg
Vitamin E
(1%)
0.18 mg
Vitamin K
(2%)
2.2 μg
Trace metals
Calcium
(1%)
6 mg
Iron
(1%)
0.12 mg
Magnesium
(1%)
5 mg
Manganese
(2%)
0.035 mg
Phosphorus
(2%)
11 mg
Potassium
(2%)
107 mg
Sodium
(0%)
1 mg
Zinc
(0%)
0.04 mg
Other constituents
Water85.56 g
Fluoride3.3 µg

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, a typical apple serving weighs 242 grams and contains 126 calories with significant dietary fiber and modest vitamin C content, with otherwise a generally low content of essential nutrients (table, right).[63]

Phytochemicals[edit]

Apple peels contain various phytochemicals with unknown nutritional value,[64] including quercetin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2.[64] Preliminary research is investigating whether nutrients and/or phytochemicals in apples may affect the risk of some types of cancer.[65]

Human consumption[edit]

An apple core, the remainder of an apple that has been mostly eaten

Apples are often eaten raw. The whole fruit including the skin is suitable for human consumption except for the seeds, which may affect some consumers.[citation needed] The core is often not eaten and is discarded. Varieties bred for raw consumption are termed dessert or table apples.

Apples can be canned or juiced. They are milled or pressed to produce apple juice, which may be drunk unfiltered (called apple cider in North America), or filtered. The juice can be fermented to make cider (called hard cider in North America), ciderkin, and vinegar. Through distillation, various alcoholic beverages can be produced, such as applejack, Calvados,[66] and apfelwein. Apple seed oil[67] and pectin may also be produced.

Popular uses[edit]

Apples are an important ingredient in many desserts, such as apple pie, apple crumble, apple crisp and apple cake. They are often eaten baked or stewed, and they can also be dried and eaten or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use. When cooked, some apple varieties easily form a puree known as apple sauce. Apples are also made into apple butter and apple jelly. They are also used (cooked) in meat dishes.

  • In the UK, a toffee apple is a traditional confection made by coating an apple in hot toffee and allowing it to cool. Similar treats in the U.S. are candy apples (coated in a hard shell of crystallized sugar syrup), and caramel apples, coated with cooled caramel.
  • Apples are eaten with honey at the Jewish New Year of Rosh Hashanah to symbolize a sweet new year.[66]
  • Farms with apple orchards may open them to the public, so consumers may themselves pick the apples they will purchase.[66]

Sliced apples turn brown with exposure to air due to the conversion of natural phenolic substances into melanin upon exposure to oxygen.[64] Different cultivars vary in their propensity to brown after slicing[68] and the genetically engineered Arctic Apples do not brown. Sliced fruit can be treated with acidulated water to prevent this effect.[64]

Organic production[edit]

Organic Jonathan apples sitting in a sink strainer after being washed.

Organic apples are commonly produced in the United States.[69] Organic production is difficult in Europe, though a few orchards have done so with commercial success,[69] using disease-resistant cultivars. A light coating of kaolin, which forms a physical barrier to some pests, also helps prevent apple sun scalding.[49][69]

Allergy[edit]

One form of apple allergy, often found in northern Europe, is called birch-apple syndrome, and is found in people who are also allergic to birch pollen.[70] Allergic reactions are triggered by a protein in apples that is similar to birch pollen, and people affected by this protein can also develop allergies to other fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Reactions, which entail oral allergy syndrome (OAS), generally involve itching and inflammation of the mouth and throat,[70] but in rare cases can also include life-threatening anaphylaxis.[71] This reaction only occurs when raw fruit is consumed—the allergen is neutralized in the cooking process. The variety of apple, maturity and storage conditions can change the amount of allergen present in individual fruits. Long storage times can increase the amount of proteins that cause birch-apple syndrome.[70]

Different kinds of apple cultivars in a wholesale food market

In other areas, such as the Mediterranean, some individuals have adverse reactions to apples because of their similarity to peaches.[70] This form of apple allergy also includes OAS, but often has more severe symptoms, such as vomiting, abdominal pain and urticaria, and can be life-threatening. Individuals with this form of allergy can also develop reactions to other fruits and nuts. Cooking does not break down the protein causing this particular reaction, so affected individuals can eat neither raw nor cooked apples. Freshly harvested, over-ripe fruits tend to have the highest levels of the protein that causes this reaction.[70]

Breeding efforts have yet to produce a hypoallergenic fruit suitable for either of the two forms of apple allergy.[70]

Toxicity of seeds[edit]

The seeds of apples contain small amounts of amygdalin, a sugar and cyanide compound known as a cyanogenic glycoside. Ingesting small amounts of apple seeds will cause no ill effects, but in extremely large doses can cause adverse reactions. There is only one known case of fatal cyanide poisoning from apple seeds; in this case the individual chewed and swallowed one cup of seeds. It may take several hours before the poison takes effect, as cyanogenic glycosides must be hydrolyzed before the cyanide ion is released.[72]


Proverbs[edit]

Apple, section

The proverb "An apple a day keeps the doctor away", addressing the health effects of the fruit, dates from 19th century Wales when Caroline Taggart, author of “An Apple a Day: Old-Fashioned Proverbs and Why They Still Work.” coined a saying in Pembrokeshire in Wales. The original phrase, Taggart said, was, ‘‘Eat an apple on going to bed, and you’ll keep the doctor from earning his bread.” In the 19th century and early 20th, the phrase evolved to “an apple a day, no doctor to pay” and “an apple a days sends the doctor away,” while the phrasing now commonly used was first recorded in 1922. This was later developed in 1900s by American apple growers who produced hard cider and apple-cider based wines which sprang as an advertisement and grew into an American proverb. Having originated in the 1900s as a marketing slogan by growers concerned that the temperance movement would cut into the sales of their hard cider, the principal market for apples at the time. Michael Pollan, The The Botany of Desire (2001), ISBN 0375501290, p. 22, cf. p. 9 & 50..

See also[edit]

Cooking apple

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Malus pumila auct.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 2012-01-04. 
  2. ^ "Pyrus malus L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 2012-01-29. 
  3. ^ "Types and names of Apple Trees, Species of the Malus Genus". Treenames.net. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "Origin, History of cultivation". University of Georgia. Archived from the original on 21 January 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  5. ^ "Apple". Natural History Museum. Retrieved 2013-09-05. 
  6. ^ a b Jules Janick, James N. Cummins, Susan K. Brown, and Minou Hemmat (1996). "Chapter 1: Apples". In Jules Janick and James N. Moore. Fruit Breeding, Volume I: Tree and Tropical Fruits (PDF). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 9. ISBN 0-471-31014-X. 
  7. ^ "Natural Waxes on Fruits". Postharvest.tfrec.wsu.edu. 2010-10-29. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  8. ^ Lauri, Pierre-éric; Karen Maguylo; Catherine Trottier (2006). "Architecture and size relations: an essay on the apple (Malus x domestica, Rosaceae) tree". American Journal of Botany (Botanical Society of America, Inc.) 93 (93): 357–368. doi:10.3732/ajb.93.3.357. 
  9. ^ Amandine Cornille et al.; Gladieux, Pierre; Smulders, Marinus J. M.; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Laurens, François; Le Cam, Bruno; Nersesyan, Anush; Clavel, Joanne; Olonova, Marina (2012). Mauricio, Rodney, ed. "New Insight into the History of Domesticated Apple: Secondary Contribution of the European Wild Apple to the Genome of Cultivated Varieties". PLOS Genetics 8 (5): e1002703. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002703. PMC 3349737. PMID 22589740. 
  10. ^ Sam Kean (2012-05-17). "ScienceShot: The Secret History of the Domesticated Apple". 
  11. ^ Coart, E., Van Glabeke, S., De Loose, M., Larsen, A.S., Roldán-Ruiz, I. 2006. Chloroplast diversity in the genus Malus: new insights into the relationship between the European wild apple (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.) and the domesticated apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Mol. Ecol. 15(8): 2171–82.
  12. ^ "Apple Cup Rivals Contribute to Apple Genome Sequencing". Cahnrsnews.wsu.edu. 2010-08-29. Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  13. ^ "The genome of the domesticated apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)". Nature.com. Retrieved 2012-12-28. 
  14. ^ An Italian-led international research consortium decodes the apple genome AlphaGallileo 29 August 2010. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  15. ^ The Science Behind the Human Genome Project Human Genome Project Information, US Department of Energy, 26 March 2008. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  16. ^ Clark, Brian, Apple Cup Rivals Contribute to Apple Genome Sequencing, 29 August 2010, Washington State University, retrieved 19 October 2011.
  17. ^ a b "An apple a day keeps the doctor away". vegparadise.com. Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 27 January 2008. 
  18. ^ Smith, Archibald William (1997). A Gardener's Handbook of Plant Names: Their Meanings and Origins. Dover Publications. p. 39. ISBN 0-486-29715-2. 
  19. ^ a b c Lawrence, James (1980). The Harrowsmith Reader, Volume II. Camden House Publishing Ltd. p. 122. ISBN 0-920656-10-2. 
  20. ^ James M. Van Valen (2010). History of Bergen county, New Jersey. Nabu Press. p. 744. ISBN 1-177-72589-4. 
  21. ^ Brox, Jane (2000). Five Thousand Days Like This One: An American Family History. Beacon Press. ISBN 978-0-8070-2107-1. 
  22. ^ "Controlled Atmosphere Storage". Washington Apple Commission. Retrieved 3 April 2012. 
  23. ^ a b Ellis Davidson, H. R. (1965) Gods And Myths Of Northern Europe, page 165 to 166. ISBN 0-14-013627-4
  24. ^ Ellis Davidson, H. R. (1965) Gods And Myths Of Northern Europe, page 165 to 166. Penguin Books ISBN 0-14-013627-4
  25. ^ Ellis Davidson, H. R. (1998) Roles of the Northern Goddess, page 146 to 147. Routledge ISBN 0-415-13610-5
  26. ^ Sauer, Jonathan D. (1993). Historical Geography of Crop Plants: A Select Roster. CRC Press. p. 109. ISBN 0-8493-8901-1. 
  27. ^ a b Wasson, R. Gordon (1968). Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 128. ISBN 0-15-683800-1. 
  28. ^ a b Ruck, Carl; Blaise Daniel Staples, Clark Heinrich (2001). The Apples of Apollo, Pagan and Christian Mysteries of the Eucharist. Durham: Carolina Academic Press. pp. 64–70. ISBN 0-89089-924-X. 
  29. ^ Heinrich, Clark (2002). Magic Mushrooms in Religion and Alchemy. Rochester: Park Street Press. pp. 64–70. ISBN 0-89281-997-9. 
  30. ^ Herodotus Histories 6.1.191.
  31. ^ Edmonds, J. M., trans.; rev. John M. Cooper. "Epigrams". Plato: Complete Works. Ed. John M. Cooper. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997. p 1744, note to VII. Print.
  32. ^ Edmonds, J. M., trans.; rev. John M. Cooper. "Epigrams". Plato: Complete Works. Ed. John M. Cooper. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1997. p 1744. Print.
  33. ^ a b c Macrone, Michael; Tom Lulevitch (1998). Brush up your Bible!. Tom Lulevitch. Random House Value. ISBN 0-517-20189-5. OCLC 38270894. 
  34. ^ "Paul J. Kissling, ''Genesis'' (College Press 2004 ISBN 978-0-89900875-2), vol. 1, p. 193". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  35. ^ "Hendel, ''The Book of Genesis: A Biography'' (Princeton University Press 2012 ISBN 978-0-69114012-4), p. 114". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  36. ^ Elzebroek, A.T.G.; Wind, K. (2008). Guide to Cultivated Plants. Wallingford: CAB International. p. 27. ISBN 1-84593-356-7. 
  37. ^ a b "Apple – Malus domestica". Natural England. Archived from the original on 12 May 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  38. ^ ""National Fruit Collections at Brogdale", Farm Advisory Services Team". Retrieved 2 December 2012. 
  39. ^ "ECPGR Malus/Pyrus Working Group Members". Ecpgr.cgiar.org. 2002-07-22. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  40. ^ a b Sue Tarjan (Fall 2006). "Autumn Apple Musings" (PDF). News & Notes of the UCSC Farm & Garden, Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems. pp. 1–2. Archived from the original on 11 August 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  41. ^ a b "World apple situation". Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  42. ^ Weaver, Sue (June–July 2003). "Crops & Gardening – Apples of Antiquity". Hobby Farms magazine (BowTie, Inc). 
  43. ^ John Lloyd and John Mitchinson (2006). QI: The Complete First Series – QI Factoids (DVD). 2 entertain. 
  44. ^ "NCSU.edu". Ces.ncsu.edu. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 7 November 2010. 
  45. ^ William G. Lord and Amy Ouellette (February 2010). "Dwarf Rootstocks for Apple Trees in the Home Garden" (PDF). University of New Hampshire. Retrieved 2013-09-01. 
  46. ^ Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Bahar Fallahi, Ik-Jo Chun (January–March 2002). "The Importance of Apple Rootstocks on Tree Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, Leaf Nutrition, and Photosynthesis with an Emphasis on ‘Fuji’" (PDF). Hort Technology 12 (1). 
  47. ^ ML Parker (September 1993). "Apple Rootstocks and Tree Spacing". North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved 2013-09-01. 
  48. ^ Ferree, David Curtis; Ian J. Warrington (1999). Apples: Botany, Production and Uses. CABI Publishing. ISBN 0-85199-357-5. OCLC 182530169. 
  49. ^ a b c d Bob Polomski; Greg Reighard. "Apple". Clemson University. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  50. ^ "Apples in Ecuador". Acta Hort. Retrieved 17 July 2008. 
  51. ^ S. Sansavini (1 July 1986). "The chilling requirement in apple and its role in regulating Time of flowering in spring in cold-Winter Climate". Symposium on Growth Regulators in Fruit Production (International ed.). Acta Horticulturae. p. 179. ISBN 978-90-6605-182-9. 
  52. ^ "Controlled Atmosphere Storage (CA)". Washington State Apple Advertising Commission. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  53. ^ "Food Science Australia Fact Sheet: Refrigerated storage of perishable foods". Food Science Australia. February 2005. Retrieved 25 May 2007. 
  54. ^ Yepsen, Roger (1994). Apples. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-03690-1. 
  55. ^ a b Lowther, Granville; William Worthington. The Encyclopedia of Practical Horticulture: A Reference System of Commercial Horticulture, Covering the Practical and Scientific Phases of Horticulture, with Special Reference to Fruits and Vegetables. The Encyclopedia of horticulture corporation. 
  56. ^ a b Coli, William et al. "Apple Pest Management Guide". University of Massachusetts Amherst. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 3 March 2008. 
  57. ^ a b Bradley, Fern Marshall; Ellis, Barbara W.; Martin, Deborah L., ed. (2009). The Organic Gardener's Handbook of Natural Pest and Disease Control. Rodale, Inc. pp. 32–34. ISBN 978-1-60529-677-7. 
  58. ^ "Production of Apple by countries". UN Food & Agriculture Organization. 2011. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  59. ^ "FAO". Faostat.fao.org. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 8 August 2012. 
  60. ^ Desmond, Andrew (1994). The World Apple Market. Haworth Press. pp. 144–149. ISBN 1-56022-041-4. OCLC 243470452. 
  61. ^ Kristin Churchill. "Chinese apple-juice concentrate exports to United States continue to rise". Great American Publishing. Archived from the original on 16 October 2006. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  62. ^ Gavin Evans (9 August 2005). "Fruit ban rankles New Zealand – Australian apple growers say risk of disease justifies barriers". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 9 August 2005. [dead link]
  63. ^ "Nutrition Facts, Apples, raw, with skin [Includes USDA commodity food A343]". Nutritiondata.com. Retrieved 2013-01-03. 
  64. ^ a b c d Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, RH (May 2004). "Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits". Nutrition journal (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853-7201 USA: Department of Food Science and Institute of Comparative and Environmental Toxicology) 3 (1): 5. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-3-5. PMC 442131. PMID 15140261. 
  65. ^ Gerhauser, C (2008). "Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components". Planta Medica 74 (13): 1608–24. doi:10.1055/s-0028-1088300. PMID 18855307.  edit
  66. ^ a b c "Apples". Washington State Apple Advertising Commission. Archived from the original on 20 December 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2008. 
  67. ^ Yu, Xiuzhu; Van De Voort, Frederick R.; Li, Zhixi; Yue, Tianli (2007). "Proximate Composition of the Apple Seed and Characterization of Its Oil". International Journal of Food Engineering 3 (5). doi:10.2202/1556-3758.1283. 
  68. ^ The Brown Apple. // The New York Times, 22.11.2010
  69. ^ a b c Ames, Guy (July 2001). "Considerations in organic apple production" (PDF). National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service. Retrieved 24 January 2008. 
  70. ^ a b c d e f "General Information – Apple". Informall. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 
  71. ^ Landau, Elizabeth, Oral allergy syndrome may explain mysterious reactions, 8 April 2009, CNN Health, accessed 17 October 2011
  72. ^ Lewis S. Nelson; Richard D. Shih; Michael J. Balick (2007). Handbook of poisonous and injurious plants. Springer. pp. 211–212. ISBN 978-0-387-33817-0. Retrieved 13 April 2013. 

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWard, Artemas (1911). The Grocer's Encyclopedia. 


Further reading[edit]

Books
Review articles on possible health benefits
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Zestar Apple

Malus x. domestica 'Zestar!'
Details
Hybrid parentage'State Fair' & 'MN 1691'
Cultivar'Zestar!'
OriginUniversity of Minnesota, 1999

The Zestar apple (known in the UK as the Flavar) is an apple cultivar that was released in 1999; it was bred to be sold as an early season apple able to survive in colder climates such as Minnesota. It was developed by the University of Minnesota.[1][2] The Zestar is protected under the US Plant Patent Act #97120.[3]

References

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!