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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native North Temperate Regions"
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Distribution

Tamil Nadu: Nilgiri
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Hebei, S Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Shanxi, Xinjiang [Japan, Russia; Europe, North America].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs 1–2 m tall. Branchlets brown or reddish brown, terete, sparsely tomentose when young, with sparse prickles, without stalked glands. Leaves imparipinnate, 5–7-foliolate, rarely 3-foliolate; petiole 3–6 cm, petiolule of terminal leaflet ca. 1 cm, petiolule and rachis tomentose, with sparse, minute prickles, without glandular hairs; stipules linear, pubescent; blade of leaflets narrowly ovate or elliptic, often ovate on terminal leaflet, 3–8 × 1.5–4.5 cm, abaxially densely tomentose, adaxially glabrous or pilose, base rounded, sometimes subcordate on terminal leaflet, margin unevenly coarsely serrate or doubly serrate, sometimes lobed on terminal leaflet, apex shortly acuminate. Inflorescences terminal, short racemes, rarely several flowers in clusters in leaf axils; rachis, pedicels, and abaxial surface of calyx densely tomentose, with dense or sparse, needle-like prickles, without glandular hairs; bracts linear, soft hairy. Pedicel 1–2 cm. Flowers 1–1.5 cm in diam. Sepals erect, ovate-lanceolate, margin gray tomentose, apex caudate. Petals white, spatulate, puberulous or glabrous, base broadly clawed. Stamens many, shorter than petals; filaments broadened and flattened. Pistils shorter than stamens; ovary and base of style densely gray tomentose. Aggregate fruit red or orange, subglobose, 1–1.4 cm in diam. densely shortly tomentose; pyrenes prominently pitted. 2n = 14*.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

Forests, forest margins, thickets, valleys, slopes, meadows, roadsides, waste places; 500--2500 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Amphorophora idaei sucks sap of live leaf of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 3-

Foodplant / gall
solitary, hypophyllous Amphorophora rubi causes gall of live, curled leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis idaei sucks sap of live lateral (fruiting) of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: spring-early summer

Foodplant / spot causer
Arabis Mosaic virus causes spots on live leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Arge gracilicornis grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus
Other: major host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / feeds on
aggregated, immersed pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta idaei feeds on live branch of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered, immersed, minute pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta pallor causes spots on live branch of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Batophila rubi grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Brunnipila clandestina is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Byturus tomentosus feeds on live flower of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Claremontia alternipes grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, single or paired, beneath clypeus perthecium of Clypeosphaeria mamillana is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: (1)2-3

Foodplant / parasite
epiphyllous, superficial, solitary or clustered pseudothecium of Coleroa chaetomium parasitises live leaf of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, immersed pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Cryptodiaporthe vepris is saprobic on dead petiole of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / spot causer
Cryptosporium coelomycetous anamorph of Cryptosporium minimum causes spots on damaged leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / spot causer
Didymella applanata causes spots on live stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, few, brownish-black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Discostroma corticola causes spots on fading (esp overwintering) leaf of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 2-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed stroma of Elsino causes spots on live leaf of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 5-10
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Empria longicornis grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Empria tridens grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Exidiopsis calcea is saprobic on dead stem (woody) of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / pathogen
immersed pycnidium of Hapalosphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Hapalosphaeria deformans infects and damages live flower of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Hartigia nigra feeds within stem of Rubus idaeus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helico

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Herpotrichia herpotrichoides is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyalopeziza millepunctata is saprobic on dead twig of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 10-6

Foodplant / saprobe
subsessile apothecium of Lachnum bicolor var. rubi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Lampronia rubiella feeds within live bud of Rubus idaeus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Coniothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Leptosphaeria coniothyrium infects and damages live stem (fruiting, at soil level) of Rubus idaeus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Leptosphaeria praetermissa is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 4-7

Foodplant / feeds on
Lepyrus capucinus feeds on Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly immersed pseudothecium of Lophiotrema curreyi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / miner
larva of Metallus albipes mines wild or cultivated leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / miner
larva of Metallus pumilus mines wild or cultivated leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria mammoidea var. rubi is saprobic on stem-root junction of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / feeds on
Otiorhynchus clavipes feeds on Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Otiorhynchus singularis feeds on live Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / roller
larva of Pamphilius hortorum rolls leaf of Rubus idaeus
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
effuse, hypophyllous colony of Peronospora rubi parasitises leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
swarming, subsessile apothecium of Phialina separabilis is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma idaei is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis muelleri is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous telium of Phragmidium rubi-idaei parasitises leaf of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / feeds on
subterranean larva of Phyllopertha horticola feeds on live root of Rubus idaeus
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera aphanis parasitises live leaf of Rubus idaeus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Priophorus brullei grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza rubi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 4-8

Foodplant / pathogen
Raspberry Bushy Dwarf virus infects and damages crumbly berry of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / pathogen
Raspberry Mosaic viruses infects and damages Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / pathogen
Raspberry Ringspot virus infects and damages crumbly berry of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Resseliella theobaldi feeds within live bark of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: summer-autumn

Foodplant / pathogen
Rubus Stunt phytoplasma infects and damages short, feeble canes (new) of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial thyriothecium of Schizothyrium speireum is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, becoming superficial apothecium of Stictis friabilis is saprobic on dead bark of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 6-9

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Stypella mirabilis is saprobic on dead, fallen stem of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perthecium of Sydowiella depressula is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Taxonus agrorum grazes on leaf of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / spot causer
Tomato Black Ring virus causes spots on crumbly berry of Rubus idaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained stem of Rubus idaeus
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
acervulus of Truncatella coelomycetous anamorph of Truncatella laurocerasi is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus idaeus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rubus idaeus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rubus idaeus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 24
Specimens with Barcodes: 30
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Materials are available through commercial nurseries. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Uses

Ethnobotanic: A tea was made from the leaves and used in the treatment of diarrhea and as an aid in childbirth (Moerman 1998). The tea has also been known to relieve painful menstrual cramps (Ibid.). Externally, the leaves and roots are used as a gargle to treat tonsillitis and mouth inflammations, sores, minor wounds, burns and varicose ulcers (Brown 1995). Europeans in the 17th century regarded the raspberries as an antispasmodic and they made a syrup of the juice which they employed to prevent vomiting (Readers Digest 1990). In the 18th century physicians and herbalists deemed the berries useful as a remedy for heart disease (Ibid). Red raspberries are eaten fresh or in jams and jellies, or added to pies and other baked goods, candies and dairy products to add flavor. Purple to dull blue dye was obtained from the fruit.

Wildlife: American red raspberry provides food and cover for many wildlife species. Grouse, birds, raccoons, coyotes, squirrels, skunks, and chipmunks eat the fruits. Raspberry thickets provide shelter for rabbits and squirrels and service as a nesting spot for many birds.

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Wikipedia

Rubus idaeus

Rubus idaeus (raspberry, also called red raspberry or occasionally as European raspberry to distinguish it from other raspberries) is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions.[1][2] A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var. strigosus, is more commonly treated as a distinct species, Rubus strigosus (American Red Raspberry), as is done here.[3] Red-fruited cultivated raspberries, even in North America, are generally Rubus idaeus or horticultural derivatives of hybrids of R. idaeus and R. strigosus; these plants are all addressed in the present article.

Plants of Rubus idaeus are generally perennials which bear biennial stems ("canes") from a perennial root system. In its first year, a new, unbranched stem ("primocane") grows vigorously to its full height of 1.5-2.5 m, bearing large pinnately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets, but usually no flowers. In its second year (as a "floricane"), a stem does not grow taller, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three or five leaflets. The flowers are produced in late spring on short racemes on the tips of these side shoots, each flower about 1 cm diameter with five white petals. The fruit is red, edible, and sweet but tart-flavoured, produced in summer or early autumn; in botanical terminology, it is not a berry at all, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets around a central core. In raspberries (various species of Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus), the drupelets separate from the core when picked, leaving a hollow fruit, whereas in blackberries and most other species of Rubus, the drupelets stay attached to the core.[4][5][6][7]

As a wild plant, R. idaeus typically grows in forests, forming open stands under a tree canopy, and denser stands in clearings. In the south of its range (southern Europe and central Asia), it only occurs at high altitudes in mountains.[6] The species name idaeus refers to its occurrence on Mount Ida near Troy in northwest Turkey, where the ancient Greeks were most familiar with it.[7]

Cultivation and uses[edit]

A red raspberry plant in a nursery in Cranford, New Jersey.
A bowl of fresh-picked wild red raspberries in Riverdale, New Jersey.

R. idaeus is grown primarily for its fruits, but occasionally for its leaves, roots, or other parts.

Fruits[edit]

Main article: Raspberry

The fruit of R. idaeus is an important food crop, though most modern commercial raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus.[7]The fruits of wild plants have a sweet taste and are very aromatic.

Leaves and other parts[edit]

Main article: Red raspberry leaf

Red raspberries contains 31 μg/100 g of folate.[8] Red raspberries have antioxidant effects that play a minor role in the killing of stomach and colon cancer cells.[9][10]

Young roots of Rubus idaeus prevented kidney stone formation in a mouse model of hyperoxaluria.[11] Tiliroside from raspberry is a potent tyrosinase inhibitor and might be used as a skin-whitening agent and pigmentation medicine.[12]

Raspberry fruit may protect the liver.[13]

Chemistry[edit]

Vitamin C and phenolics are present in red raspberries. Most notably, the anthocyanins cyanidin-3-sophoroside, cyanidin-3-(2(G)-glucosylrutinoside) and cyanidin-3-glucoside, the two ellagitannins sanguiin H-6 and lambertianin C are present together with trace levels of flavonols, ellagic acid and hydroxycinnamate.[14]

Polyphenolic compounds from raspberry seeds have antioxidant effects in vitro,[15][16] but have no proven antioxidant effect in humans.[17] Although raspberry ketones found in seed oils are marketed as having weight loss benefits,[18] there is no clinical evidence for this effect in humans.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Flora Europaea: Rubus idaeus
  2. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Rubus idaeus
  3. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Rubus strigosus
  4. ^ Flora of NW Europe: Rubus idaeus
  5. ^ Flora of China: Rubus idaeus
  6. ^ a b Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2.
  7. ^ a b c Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  8. ^ Martin H, Comeskey D, Simpson RM, Laing WA, McGhie TK2010. Quantification of folate in fruits and vegetables: a fluorescence-based homogeneous assay. Anal Biochem. 402(2):137-145
  9. ^ Nutr Res. 30(11):777-782
  10. ^ McDougall GJ, Ross HA, Ikeji M, Stewart D. 2008. Berry extracts exert different antiproliferative effects against cervical and colon cancer cells grown in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 56(9):3016-3023
  11. ^ Ghalayini IF, Al-Ghazo MA, Harfeil MN 2011. Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice. Int Braz J Urol. 37(2):259-267
  12. ^ Lu YH, Chen J, Wei DZ, Wang ZT, Tao XY., 2009. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect and inhibitory mechanism of tiliroside from raspberry. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 24(5):1154-1160
  13. ^ Gião MS, Pestana D, Faria A, Guimarães JT, Pintado ME, Calhau C, Azevedo I, Malcata FX., 2010. Effects of extracts of selected medicinal plants upon hepatic oxidative stress. J Med Food. 13(1):131-136
  14. ^ Mullen, W.; Stewart, A. J.; Lean, M. E.; Gardner, P.; Duthie, G. G.; Crozier, A. (2002). "Effect of freezing and storage on the phenolics, ellagitannins, flavonoids, and antioxidant capacity of red raspberries". Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 50 (18): 5197–5201. doi:10.1021/jf020141f. PMID 12188629.  edit
  15. ^ Godevac D, Tesević V, Vajs V, Milosavljević S, Stanković M., 2009. Antioxidant properties of raspberry seed extracts on micronucleus distribution in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Food Chem Toxicol. 47(11):2853-2859
  16. ^ Aiyer HS, Kichambare S, Gupta RC 2008. Prevention of oxidative DNA damage by bioactive berry components. Nutr Cancer. 60(Suppl 1):36-42
  17. ^ Gross, P (2009). "New Roles for Polyphenols. A 3-Part report on Current Regulations & the State of Science". Nutraceuticals World. Rodman Media. Retrieved April 11, 2013. 
  18. ^ "The Sweet Taste of Weight Loss". Ohio State University Food Innovation Center. 2014. Retrieved 3 Sep 2014. 
  19. ^ "Raspberry Ketone". WebMD. 
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Notes

Comments

The fruit are eaten raw and are used for making jam, jelly, juice, wine, and vinegar. The dried fruit are used in medicine. The stems and roots are a source of tannin.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: As treated here, includes both the European and North American red raspberries; the latter are sometimes separated into the species Rubus strigosus, with the name Rubus idaeus then referring only to the European red raspberry, which is possibly present naturally in easternmost Canada but otherwise in North America only cultivated (and occasionally escaped). LEM 13Aug01.

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