Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Occurrence in North America

     CA  DE  ID  MD  OR  UT  VA  WA  BC

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The Himalayan blackberry is a native of the Old World [3,31].  However,
it has become widely naturalized in the Northeast from Delaware to
Virginia, and in the Pacific Northwest [3].  The Himalayan blackberry
occurs from northern California through southern British Columbia
eastward to Idaho.  It is particularly widespread west of the Cascades
[14] and is now abundant along the Snake River in southeastern
Washington [13].  It is also locally established in parts of Utah and
perhaps Arizona [19,31].
  • 19.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 13.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the        Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA:        University of Washington Press. 614 p.  [1167]
  • 14.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 31.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

    1  Northern Pacific Border
    2  Cascade Mountains
    3  Southern Pacific Border
    4  Sierra Mountains
    5  Columbia Plateau
    6  Upper Basin and Range
    8  Northern Rocky Mountains
    9  Middle Rocky Mountains
   12  Colorado Plateau

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

The Himalayan blackberry is a robust, clambering or sprawling, evergreen
shrub which grows up to 9.8 feet (3 m) in height [25,31].  Leaves are
pinnately to palmately compound, with three to five broad leaflets
[25,31].  Mature leaves are green and glaucous above but tomentose
beneath [31].

Stems of most blackberries are biennial.  Sterile first-year stems, or
primocanes, develop from buds at or below the ground surface and bear
only leaves [11].  During the second year, lateral branches, known as
floricanes, develop in the axils of the primocanes, and produce both
leaves and flowers [11].

Perfect flowers are borne in clusters of 3 to 20 [24,31].  Flowers are
most commonly white, but rose or reddish flowers also occur [24,31].
Ripe fruit, commonly referred to as "berries," are soft, shiny black and
composed of an aggregate of large succulent drupelets [3,25].
  • 11.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 24.  Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1905 p.  [6155]
  • 25.  Munz, Philip A. 1974. A flora of southern California. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1086 p.  [4924]
  • 31.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: fresh, shrubs

The Himalayan blackberry typically grows in open weedy sites, such as
along field margins, railroad right-of-ways, roadsides, and on abandoned
farms [6,14,31].  It is also common in riparian woodlands and intertidal
zones of central California [18,22,28,32].

Soils:  Blackberries grow well on a variety of barren, infertile soil
types [3].  These shrubs tolerate a wide range of soil pH and texture,
but do require adequate soil moisture [33].  The Himalayan blackberry
appears to be tolerant of periodic flooding by brackish or fresh water
[32].

Elevation:  Elevational ranges of the Himalayan blackberry have been
documented as follows for two western states [19,31]:

              > 6,000 feet (1,829 m) in AZ
              from 2,788 to 5,000 feet (850-1,525 m) in UT
  • 19.  Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock,        Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of        California Press. 1085 p.  [6563]
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 6.  Crane, M. B. 1940. Reproductive versatility in Rubus. I. Morphology and        inheritance. Journal of Genetics. 40: 109-118.  [8443]
  • 14.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 18.  Katibah, Edwin F.; Nedeff, Nicole E.; Dummer, Kevin J. 1984. Summary of        riparian vegetation aerial and linear extent measurements from the        Central Valley Riparian Mapping Project. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 46-50.  [5824]
  • 22.  Laymon, Stephen A. 1984. Photodocumentation of vegetation and landform        change on a riparian site, 1880-1980: Dog Island, Red Bluff, California.        In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian        systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings        of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press: 150-159.  [5833]
  • 28.  Roberts, Warren G.; Howe, J. Greg; Major, Jack. 1980. A survey of        riparian forest flora and fauna in California. In: Sands, Anne, editor.        Riparian forests in California: Their ecology and conservation:        Symposium proceedings. Davis, CA: University of California, Division of        Agricultural Sciences: 3-19.  [5271]
  • 31.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]
  • 32.  Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition        and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian        woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 642-651.  [5866]
  • 33.  Core, Earl L. 1974. Brambles. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M.,        compilers. Shrubs and vines for Northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-9. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:        16-19.  [8923]

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

    21  Eastern white pine
    60  Beech - sugar maple
    64  Sassafras - persimmon
    78  Virginia pine - oak
    79  Virginia pine
    80  Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine
    81  Loblolly pine
    82  Loblolly pine - hardwood
   109  Hawthorn
   222  Black cottonwood - willow
   224  Western hemlock
   226  Coastal true fir - hemlock
   227  Western redcedar - western hemlock
   230  Douglas-fir - western hemlock

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

   K001  Spruce - cedar - hemlock forest
   K002  Cedar - hemlock - Douglas-fir forest
   K102  Beech - maple forest
   K106  Northern hardwoods
   K111  Oak - hickory - pine forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

   FRES10  White - red - jack pine
   FRES13  Loblolly - shortleaf pine
   FRES15  Oak - hickory
   FRES18  Maple - beech - birch
   FRES24  Hemlock - Sitka spruce
   FRES28  Western hardwoods

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Key Plant Community Associations

Associated species:  A wide variety of weedy species occur with
Himalayan blackberry on disturbed sites in the Northeast and Pacific
Northwest. The following species commonly grow with Himalayan blackberry
in riparian zones of California:  trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus),
evergreen blackberry (R. laciniatus), Fremont cottonwood (Populus
fremontii), black cottonwood (P. trichocarpa), oaks (Quercus spp.),
arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis), and other willows (Salix spp.)
[18,22,28,32].
  • 18.  Katibah, Edwin F.; Nedeff, Nicole E.; Dummer, Kevin J. 1984. Summary of        riparian vegetation aerial and linear extent measurements from the        Central Valley Riparian Mapping Project. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of the conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 46-50.  [5824]
  • 22.  Laymon, Stephen A. 1984. Photodocumentation of vegetation and landform        change on a riparian site, 1880-1980: Dog Island, Red Bluff, California.        In: Warner, Richard E.; Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian        systems: Ecology, conservation, and productive management: Proceedings        of a conference; 1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press: 150-159.  [5833]
  • 28.  Roberts, Warren G.; Howe, J. Greg; Major, Jack. 1980. A survey of        riparian forest flora and fauna in California. In: Sands, Anne, editor.        Riparian forests in California: Their ecology and conservation:        Symposium proceedings. Davis, CA: University of California, Division of        Agricultural Sciences: 3-19.  [5271]
  • 32.  Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition        and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian        woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 642-651.  [5866]

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Fungus / parasite
Podosphaera aphanis parasitises live Rubus discolor

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General Ecology

Plant Response to Fire

More info for the term: direct effects of fire

Vegetative response:  The Himalayan blackberry is capable of rapid,
extensive spread through trailing aboveground stems which root at the
nodes [32].  Plants are presumably able to regenerate vegetatively and
resume growth when portions of the aboveground stems remain undamaged.
Most blackberries readily regenerate vegetatively from underground
structures such as roots, rhizomes, or rootstocks when aboveground
foliage is removed [11].  Regeneration through various underground
structures, which are well protected from the direct effects of fire by
overlying soil, is probable even when the aboveground vegetation is
totally consumed by fire.

Seedling establishment:  Exposed mineral soil can provide a favorable
seedbed, and extensive postfire establishment of on-site seed is
commonly observed in many blackberries.  Birds and mammals may also
transport some viable seed to the site.

Rate of postfire recovery:  The weedy Himalayan blackberry is described
as a "serious pest" which is well represented on many types of disturbed
sites [7,14].  Its role as a vigorous invader on waste ground suggests
the potential for rapid postfire recovery in many areas.
  • 11.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 7.  Dale, Nancy. 1986. Flowering plants: The Santa Monica Mountains, coastal        and chaparral regions of southern California. Santa Barbara, CA: Capra        Press. In coooperation with: The California Native Plant Society. 239 p.        [7605]
  • 14.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]
  • 32.  Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition        and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian        woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 642-651.  [5866]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: duff

Although Himalayan blackberry plants may be top-killed, actual mortality
appears to be uncommon because of the prolific sprouting ability of this
shrub.

Most Himalayan blackberry seed stored on-site in the soil or duff is
probably unharmed by fire. 

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Post-fire Regeneration

More info for the terms: geophyte, ground residual colonizer, rhizome, shrub

   Tall shrub, adventitious-bud root crown
   Rhizomatous shrub, rhizome in soil
   Geophyte, growing points deep in soil
   Initial-offsite colonizer (off-site, initial community)
   Ground residual colonizer (on-site, initial community)

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Fire Ecology

More info for the terms: duff, shrub

Blackberries are typically observed in greatest abundance following fire
or other types of disturbance.  The Himalayan blackberry is well adapted
to invade recently burned sites.  Most blackberries sprout vigorously
after fire [9].  Various regenerative structures located at or below the
ground surface enable this shrub to sprout, even when aboveground
foliage is totally consumed by fire.  Sprouting through rooting stem
nodes [32] is also likely if even portions of the aboveground stem
remain undamaged.

Most blackberries store seed in seedbanks.  Plants can readily reoccupy
recently burned sites through seed protected from the direct effects of
fire by overlying soil or duff.  Seed generally remains viable for long
periods of time [2] and germinates in abundance after disturbance.  The
relatively large, sweet, succulent fruits of blackberries amply reward
animal dispersers [16], and some postfire reestablishment through seed
transported from off-site is also probable.
  • 2.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]
  • 9.  Ferguson, Robert B. 1983. Use of rosaceous shrubs for wildland plantings        in the Intermountain West. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy,        compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and        wildlife habitats; Proceedings of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin        Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden,        UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest        and Range Experiment Station: 136-149.  [915]
  • 16.  Janzen, Daniel H. 1984. Dispersal of small seeds by big herbivores:        foliage is the fruit. American Naturalist. 123(3): 338-353.  [6901]
  • 32.  Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition        and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian        woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 642-651.  [5866]

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Successional Status

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Blackberries are generally most prevalent in early seral communities.
In the Northeast, blackberries are aggressive invaders in old field
communities [33].  In the West, the introduced Himalayan blackberry
commonly occurs as an early seral species in relatively open disturbed
areas, such as along roadways or on abandoned homesteads [31].  This
blackberry also grows in certain riparian areas of California where it
can apparently establish and persist despite periodic inundation by
fresh or brackish water [32].  This periodic flooding can produce
relatively long-lived early seral communities conducive to the growth
and spread of blackberries.  The Himalayan blackberry is one of the few
woody plants pioneering certain intertidal zones of the lower Sacramento
River [32].  Little is known about the successional status of the
Himalayan blackberry in its native Europe.
  • 31.  Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry        C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo,        UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p.  [2944]
  • 32.  Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition        and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian        woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 642-651.  [5866]
  • 33.  Core, Earl L. 1974. Brambles. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M.,        compilers. Shrubs and vines for Northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-9. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:        16-19.  [8923]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: apomixis

The Himalayan blackberry is capable of extensive and vigorous vegetative
regeneration [32].  Sexual reproduction may also be important.
Reproductive versatility is well represented in the Rubus genus, with
sexual reproduction, parthenogenesis (development of the egg without
fertilization), pseudogamy (a form of apomixis in which pollination is
required), and parthenocarpy (production of fruit without
fertilization), occurring widely [6].  The following types of
reproduction have been documented in blackberries:  (1) sexual
reproduction, (2) nonreduction at meiosis on the female, male, or both
sides, (3) apomixis (seeds contain embryos of maternal, rather than
sexual origin) with segregation, (4) apomixis without segregation, and
(5) haploid parthenogenesis [6].  These modes of asexual reproduction
contribute significantly to the aggressive, vigorous spread of
blackberries.

Vegetative regeneration:  The mostly biennial stems of blackberries
typically develop from perennial rootstocks or creeping stems [11].
Most species within the Rubus genus are capable of sprouting vigorously
from root or stem suckers, or rooting stem tips [11].  Although not
specifically documented for the Himalayan blackberry, a similar response
is probable given the plant's morphology and the speed at which
postdisturbance establishment and spread occurs.  The Himalayan
blackberry is known to spread extensively by trailing stems which root
at the nodes [32].  Rapid vegetative spread occurs even in the absence
of disturbance.

Seed production:  Most blackberries produce good seed crops nearly every
year [3].  Immature fruit of the Himalayan blackberry is red and hard,
but at maturity, fruit becomes shiny black, soft, and succulent [3].
Individual drupelets form an aggregate up to 0.8 inches (2 cm) in length
[3,24].  Cleaned seed averages approximately 147,000 per pound
(323,789/kg) [3].

Germination:  Blackberry seeds have a hard impermeable coat and a
dormant embryo [3].  Consequently, germination is often slow.  Most
blackberries require, as a minimum, warm stratification at 68 to 86
degrees F (20 to 30 degrees C) for 90 days, followed by cold
stratification at 36 to 41 degrees F (2 to 5 degrees C) for an
additional 90 days [3].  These conditions are frequently encountered
naturally as seeds mature in summer and remain in the soil throughout
the cold winter months.  Laboratory tests indicate that exposure to
sulfuric acid solutions or sodium hyperchlorite prior to cold
stratification can enhance germination [3].

Seedbanking:  Seeds of most blackberries can remain viable when stored
in the soil for a period of at least several years [2].  However, the
specific length of viability has not been documented for the Himalayan
blackberry.

Seed dispersal:  Seeds of blackberries are readily dispersed by gravity
and by many species of birds and mammals.  The large succulent fruits
are highly sought-after and, after they mature, rarely remain on the
plant for long [3].  A hard seedcoat protects the embryo even when the
seeds are ingested.  Evidence suggests that the action of avian gizzards
and exposure to mammalian digestive acids provide scarification which
may actually enhance germination [1].
  • 2.  Bernard, Stephen R.; Brown, Kenneth F. 1977. Distribution of mammals,        reptiles, and amphibians by BLM physiographic regions and A.W. Kuchler's        associations for the eleven western states. Tech. Note 301. Denver, CO:        U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 169 p.        [434]
  • 11.  Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains.        Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p.  [1603]
  • 1.  Barber, William Hollis, Jr. 1976. An autecological study of salmonberry        (Rubus spectabilis, Pursh) in western Washington. Seattle, WA:        University of Washington. 154 p. Thesis.  [7189]
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 6.  Crane, M. B. 1940. Reproductive versatility in Rubus. I. Morphology and        inheritance. Journal of Genetics. 40: 109-118.  [8443]
  • 24.  Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA:        University of California Press. 1905 p.  [6155]
  • 32.  Willoughby, John W.; Davilla, William. 1984. Plant species composition        and life form spectra of tidal streambanks and adjacent riparian        woodlands along the lower Sacramento River. In: Warner, Richard E.;        Hendrix, Kathleen M., eds. California riparian systems: Ecology,        conservation, and productive management: Proceedings of a conference;        1981 September 17-19; Davis, CA. Berkeley, CA: University of California        Press: 642-651.  [5866]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the term: hemicryptophyte

  
Hemicryptophyte

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Life Form

More info for the term: shrub

Shrub

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Fire Management Considerations

Wildlife species which consume large amounts of blackberries are often
benefited by fire [20].
  • 20.  Kramp, Betty A.; Patton, David R.; Brady, Ward W. 1983. The effects of        fire on wildlife habitat and species. RUN WILD: Wildlife/ habitat        relationships. Albuerque, NM: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest        Service, Southwestern Region, Wildlife Unit Technical Report. 29 p.        [152]

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

The Himalayan blackberry generally flowers from June to August [3,13].
Fruit ripens in August and September [3], with seed dispersal in the
fall.
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 13.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the        Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA:        University of Washington Press. 614 p.  [1167]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rubus discolor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rubus armeniacus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rubus discolor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

Management considerations

Competition:  The introduced Himalayan blackberry has spread
aggressively in many parts of the United States.  It is now regarded as
a serious pest in parts of the Pacific Northwest, particularly west of
the Cascades [14].

Chemical control:  Good to excellent control of the Himalayan blackberry
can be obtained through the use of glyphosate, picloram + 2,4-D,
triclopyr ester, or triclopyr amine [4].
  • 4.  Burrill, Larry C.; Braunworth, William S., Jr.; William, Ray D.; [and        others]
  • 14.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific        Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p.  [1168]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

More info for the terms: cover, shrub

Wildlife:  The Himalayan blackberry provides food and cover for many
wildlife species.  Fruits of blackberries are eaten by numerous birds,
including the northern bobwhite, scaled quail, ruffed grouse,
sharp-tailed grouse, California quail, ring-necked pheasant, blue
grouse, gray (Hungarian) partridge, band-tailed pigeon, gray catbird,
northern cardinal, American robin, yellow-breasted chat, pine grosbeak,
summer tanager, orchard oriole, brown thrasher, thrushes, and towhees
[1,30,33].  Mammals such, as the coyote, common opossum, red squirrel,
raccoon, gray fox, red fox, skunks, squirrels, chipmunks, and black
bear, also feed on blackberries [30,33].

Deer, rabbits, and mountain beaver consume the buds, stems, and leaves
of blackberries [30,33].  The Himalayan blackberry is considered a
primary elk browse in parts of California, where it is used primarily
during the winter months [12].  Porcupines and beaver feed on the
cambium, buds, and stems of many species of blackberries [30].

Livestock:  Blackberries, in general, provide only poor browse for
domestic livestock [30].  However, the specific value of Himalayan
blackberry has not been documented.  In some areas, this shrub may
represent a barrier to the movement of livestock.  Domestic sheep
occasionally become entangled in the spiny foliage of this sprawling
shrub [13].
  • 1.  Barber, William Hollis, Jr. 1976. An autecological study of salmonberry        (Rubus spectabilis, Pursh) in western Washington. Seattle, WA:        University of Washington. 154 p. Thesis.  [7189]
  • 12.  Harper, James A. 1962. Daytime feeding habits of Roosevelt elk on Boyes        Prairie, California. Journal of Wildlife Management. 26(1): 97-100.        [8876]
  • 13.  Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1961. Vascular plants of the        Pacific Northwest. Part 3: Saxifragaceae to Ericaceae. Seattle, WA:        University of Washington Press. 614 p.  [1167]
  • 30.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240]
  • 33.  Core, Earl L. 1974. Brambles. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M.,        compilers. Shrubs and vines for Northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-9. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:        16-19.  [8923]

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

Most blackberries are valuable for preventing soil erosion on barren,
infertile, disturbed sites [3,30].  The Himalayan blackberry has been
successfully planted in riparian areas along Columbia River impoundments
in north-central Washington [5].  Good survival was observed up to 5
years after the initial plantings were made [5].

Blackberries may be propagated vegetatively, transplanted, or seeded
onto disturbed sites.  According to Brinkman [3], seed which has been
scarified can be successfully planted in the late summer or early fall.
Seed planted in the fall does not require cold treatment.  Previously
stratified and scarified seed can be planted in the spring.  Good
results have been obtained after seeds were planted with a drill and
covered with 1/8 to 3/16 inch (0.3-0.5 cm) of soil [3].
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 5.  Carson, Robert G.; Edgerton, Paul J. 1989. Creating riparian wildlife        habitat along a Columbia River impoundment in northcentral Washington.        In: Wallace, Arthur; McArthur, E. Durant; Haferkamp, Marshall R.,        compilers. Proceedings--symposium on shrub ecophysiology and        biotechnology; 1987 June 30 - July 2; Logan, UT. Gen. Tech. Rep.        INT-256. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,        Intermountain Research Station: 64-69.  [5924]
  • 30.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240]

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Other uses and values

Himalayan blackberry is the most commonly harvested wild blackberry in
western Washington and Oregon, although its fruit is reportedly less
flavorful than that of the native trailing blackberry (Rubus ursinus)
[7].  It is a preferred berry for fruit pies [7].  The fruit, roots, and
stems of blackberries have been used to make various medicinal
preparations [3].  Many blackberries are grown in gardens or as
ornamentals.  Himalayan blackberry was first cultivated in 1890 [3].
  • 3.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Rubus L.  blackberry, raspberry. In:        Schopmeyer, C. S., ed. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agriculture Handbook No. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service: 738-743.  [7743]
  • 7.  Dale, Nancy. 1986. Flowering plants: The Santa Monica Mountains, coastal        and chaparral regions of southern California. Santa Barbara, CA: Capra        Press. In coooperation with: The California Native Plant Society. 239 p.        [7605]

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Cover Value

Dense blackberry thickets form suitable nesting sites for many species
of birds [33].  Mammals, such as rabbits, red squirrel, black bear, and
beaver, use blackberry thickets as hiding or resting sites [30].
  • 30.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240]
  • 33.  Core, Earl L. 1974. Brambles. In: Gill, John D.; Healy, William M.,        compilers. Shrubs and vines for Northeastern wildlife. Gen. Tech. Rep.        NE-9. Broomall, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service:        16-19.  [8923]

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Palatability

Fruits of blackberries are highly palatable to many birds and mammals.
Palatability of Himalayan blackberry browse has not been determined.

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Wikipedia

Rubus armeniacus

Himalayan Blackberry flower, Bay Area, California. Note spider on bottom petal.

Rubus armeniacus, Armenian Blackberry or Himalayan Blackberry, is a species of Rubus in the blackberry group Rubus subgenus Rubus series Discolores (P.J. Müll.) Focke. It is native to Armenia and Northern Iran, and widely naturalised elsewhere. Both its scientific name and origin have been the subject of much confusion, with much of the literature using one or the other of the two synonyms, and often mistakenly citing its origin as western European.[1][2][3]

Description[edit]

Rubus armeniacus is a perennial plant which bears biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system. In its first year a new stem grows vigorously to its full length of 4-10 m, trailing along the ground or arching up to 4 m high. The stem is stout, up to 2–3 cm diameter at the base, and green or reddish-tinged above if it is exposed to bright sunlight. The leaves on first year shoots are 7–20 cm long, palmately compound with five leaflets. Flowers are not produced on first year shoots. In its second year, the stem does not grow longer, but produces several side shoots, which bear smaller leaves with three leaflets (rarely a single leaflet). These leaflets are oval-acute, dark green above and pale to whitish below, with a toothed margin, and thorns along the midrib on the underside. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on panicles of 3–20 together on the tips of the second-year side shoots, each flower 2–2.5 cm diameter with five white or pale pink petals.

The fruit in botanical terminology is not a berry, but an aggregate fruit of numerous drupelets, 1.2–2 cm diameter, ripening black or dark purple. Both first and second year shoots are spiny, with short, stout, curved, sharp spines. Mature plants form a tangle of dense arching stems, the branches rooting from the node tip when they reach the ground.[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Berry crop[edit]

The species was introduced to Europe in 1835 and to Australasia and North America in 1885. It was valued for its fruit, similar to that of common blackberries (Rubus fruticosus and allies) but larger and sweeter, making it a more attractive species for both domestic and commercial fruit production. The cultivars "Himalayan Giant" and "Theodore Reimers" are particularly commonly planted.[1][2]

Invasive species[edit]

Rubus armeniacus soon escaped from cultivation and has become an invasive species in most of the temperate world.[1][2][5][6][7] Because it is so hard to contain, it quickly got out of control, with birds and other animals eating the fruit and then spreading the seeds.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Ceska, A. (1999). Rubus armeniacus - a correct name for Himalayan Blackberries Botanical Electronic News 230. Available online.
  2. ^ a b c Flora of NW Europe: Rubus armeniacus
  3. ^ University of British Columbia Botany Photo of the Day: July 21, 2005 : Rubus armeniacus
  4. ^ Francis, J. K. (2003). Rubus discolor Weihe & Nees. pdf file
  5. ^ Naturalised Invasive and Potentially Invasive Garden Plant database (Australia) pdf file
  6. ^ USDA Plant Profile: Rubus armeniacus
  7. ^ Max Bennett, Extension forester, Jackson County (February 2007). "Managing Himalayan Blackberry in western Oregon riparian areas". Oregon State University. Retrieved 2014-05-26. "It escaped cultivation and has since invaded a variety of sites, including low-elevation streamside areas throughout the Pacific Northwest. Listed as a noxious weed in Oregon, Himalayan blackberry rapidly occupies disturbed areas, is very difficult to eradicate once established, and tends to out-compete native vegetation. For those trying to restore or enhance native streamside vegetation, Himalayan blackberry control is a major problem." 


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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Synonyms

Rubus armeniacus Focke
Rubus procerus auct. non P.J. Müll. ex Genev

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The currently accepted scientific name of the Himalayan blackberry is
Rubus discolor Weihe and Nees [17]. Infrataxa have not been described
for this species.

Himalayan blackberry hybridizes with a number of Rubus species [6].
  • 6.  Crane, M. B. 1940. Reproductive versatility in Rubus. I. Morphology and        inheritance. Journal of Genetics. 40: 109-118.  [8443]
  • 17.  Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of        the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume        II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North        Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie        Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p.  [6954]

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Common Names

Himalayan blackberry

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