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Overview

Brief Summary

You find blackberries just about everywhere. In Scotland, they call them brambles. Blackberries grow where there are lots of nutrients in the ground and preferably sunny areas. However, they also grow in nutrient-poor soils and along the edges of or even deeper in a forest. Besides people, lots of animals eat the berries or drink the nectar: birds, fox, bees. The berries are very healthy, containing lots of vitamin C and fibers as well as various minerals. Furthermore, blackberries can be used to dye fabrics and wool.
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Biology

Brambles are deciduous or semi-evergreen shrubs (3) that are in leaf from March to November (6). Unusually, the ripe fruits can be seen on the plants at the same time as the flowers (7). It flowers from May to September, with the seeds ripening from July to October (6).  Blackberry seeds were discovered in the stomach of a Neolithic human dug up on the Essex coast, indicating that the berries have been enjoyed by humans for thousands of years (8). Blackberrying is one of the most widespread foraging activities to continue today, and they have been picked commercially in many areas (4). As well as their many culinary uses, blackberries have been used to obtain a purple dye. A fibre can be obtained from the stem and the leaves can be dried and used as a substitute for tea (6). The leaves and roots have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, and cystitis, and can be made into a gargle for sore throats mouth ulcers and other sores (6).
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Description

Brambles form a complex group known as Rubus fruticosus agg. (short for aggregate), containing around 320 individual 'species' known as microspecies (3). These varieties are very difficult to tell apart (1). All brambles are sprawling shrubs, with thick prickly stems that are able to take root at their tips (2). The leaves have toothed edges and bear prickles on their undersides (2). The flowers tend to be creamy white with splashes of pink, and the unmistakable blackberries are a deep purplish-black when ripe (4). Microspecies differ on the basis of certain morphological features, including the density and arrangement of the prickles, and general growth form (5).
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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Rubus fruticosus L.:
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
  • Drake del Castillo, E. 1902[1903]. Histoire naturelle des plantes. Hist. Phys. Madagascar 30: 1–208.   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1012556 External link.
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. Welman, E. Reitief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. v. Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2).   http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1371 External link.
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Range

Brambles are found throughout the British Isles to altitudes of up to 490 m (3). At least 28 micro-species are considered to be rare, with a further 30 being decidedly scarce (5).
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Ecology

Habitat

Found in woods, scrub, hedgerows, heaths, waste ground, and on banks, thriving best on acidic soils (3).
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / open feeder
hypophyllous Acalitus essigi grazes on live leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: Spring-

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Aleurodiscus apricans grows on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Aleurodiscus aurantius grows on dead stem (woody) of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, usually grouped, under clypeus perithecium of Anthostomella appendiculosa is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 9-5
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, solitary or grouped, clypeate perithecium of Anthostomella clypeoides is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 10-5
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, usually grouped, under clypeus perithecium of Anthostomella rubicola is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: (2-)4(-10)
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Anthostomella tomicoides is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Anungitea dematiaceous anamorph of Anungitea heterospora is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / parasite
cleistocarp of Appendiculella calostroma parasitises live leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered, immersed, minute pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta pallor causes spots on live shoot of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent from immersed, bulb-like base apothecium of Bulbomollisia radiata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Byturus tomentosus feeds on live flower of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, subsessile apothecium of Calycellina populina is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 9-3

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed or erumpent pycnidium of Camposporium coelomycetous anamorph of Camarosporium rubicolum is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-5

Plant / epiphyte
epiphyllous thallus of Cephaleuros endophyticus grows on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
Cercosporula anamorph of Cercosporula crassiuscula is saprobic on dead Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
basidiome of Chaetocalathus craterellus is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
Codinaea dematiaceous anamorph of Chaetosphaeria callimorpha is saprobic on dead stem (esp. near base) of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 10-5

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Chalara dematiaceous anamorph of Chalara kendrickii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, single or paired, beneath clypeus perthecium of Clypeosphaeria mamillana is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: (1)2-3

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Crepidotus luteolus is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
usually clustered,immersed, breaking through perithecium of Cryptodiaporthe vepris is saprobic on dead petiole of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Dematioscypha richonis var. richonis is saprobic on dead stem (near base) of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 11

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Dendrothele commixta is saprobic on dead, attached twig of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, scattered or in small groups perithecium of Diaporthe rostellata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Didymosphaeria oblitescens is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 12-1

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Didymosphaeria rubicola is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia rubi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, few, brownish-black pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Discostroma corticola causes spots on fading (esp overwintering) leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-4
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dryophilus anobioides feeds within stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Echinula asteriadiformis is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-7

Foodplant / spot causer
acervulus of Sphaceloma coelomycetous anamorph of Elsino causes spots on live stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Endoperplexa enodulosa is saprobic on decayed Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella boothii is saprobic on dead, decorticate stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Endophragmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Endophragmiella lignicola is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Fusichalara dematiaceous anamorph of Fusichalara clavatispora is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on old, dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, single or in small groups perithecium of Gnomoniella rubicola is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-12

Foodplant / gall
immersed pycnidium of Hapalosphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Hapalosphaeria deformans causes gall of live inflorescence of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
Helicogloea vestita is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Hemibeltrania dematiaceous anamorph of Hemibeltrania echinulata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena delectabilis is saprobic on dead stem (woody) of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hemimycena mauretanica is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Henicospora dematiaceous anamorph of Henicospora minor is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 9-11

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Herpotrichia herpotrichoides is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Hyaloscypha albohyalina var. albohyalina is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 11-1

Foodplant / saprobe
hypophyllous apothecium of Hyaloscypha carpinacea is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 7

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious apothecium of Hyaloscypha hyalina is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 9-3

Foodplant / feeds on
imago of Hylobius abietis feeds on leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Hymenochaete corrugata parasitises live wood of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodermella corrugata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
epiphyllous, subcuticular conidioma of Leptothyrina coelomycetous anamorph of Hypoderma rubi is saprobic on dead, fallen, locally bleached leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-2

Foodplant / saprobe
subepidermal, then exposed by raising or lifting off little lids apothecium of Hysterostegiella dumeti is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-5
Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
subsessile apothecium of Incrupila melatheja is saprobic on damp, dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / parasite
uredium of Kuehneola uredinis parasitises live petiole of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-5 onwards

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile or subsessile, hypophyllous apothecium of Lachnum dumorum is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-11

Foodplant / saprobe
long stalked apothecium of Lachnum virgineum is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-9
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / internal feeder
caterpillar of Lampronia rubiella feeds within live bud of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Lepidomyces subcalceus is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Lepiota coxheadii is associated with Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / pathogen
Coniothyrium coelomycetous anamorph of Leptosphaeria coniothyrium infects and damages live stem (fruiting, at soil level) of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
partly immersed pseudothecium of Lophiostoma fuckelii var. fuckelii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / saprobe
partly immersed pseudothecium of Lophiostoma fuckelii var. pulveraceum is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-10

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Lophiostoma viridarium is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-5

Plant / associate
adult of Macrolophus rubi is associated with Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmiellus candidus is saprobic on dead stem (woody) of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Marasmiellus ramealis is saprobic on dead, fallen twig of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / miner
larva of Metallus albipes mines leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / miner
larva of Metallus pumilus mines leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial thyriothecium of Microthyrium versicolor is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-11

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Mirandina dematiaceous anamorph of Mirandina corticola is saprobic on stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-10

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile apothecium of Mollisia clavata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-11
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
embedded stroma of Mollisia stromatica is saprobic on dead branch of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 12

Foodplant / saprobe
sessile, hypophyllous apothecium of Mollisina rubi is saprobic on dead, fallen leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Mollisiopsis lanceolata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Monophadnoides ruficruris grazes on leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
thyriothecium of Morenoina clarkii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-10

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena adscendens is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena dasypus is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Mycena rorida is saprobic on dead, decaying stem of debris of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
toadstool of Mycena smithiana is saprobic on dead, fallen, decaying leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: Other: uncertain
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous colony of Pseudocercospora dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella confusa causes spots on leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Plant / associate
extensive, velvety colony of Cladosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Mycosphaerella tulasnei is associated with rotten stigma of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
perithecium of Nectria mammoidea var. rubi is saprobic on stem-root junction of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oliveonia fibrillosa is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Oliveonia pauxilla is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, some with clypeus perithecium of Paradidymella clarkii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 10

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, subicular pycnothyrium of Peltasterinostroma coelomycetous anamorph of Peltasterinostroma rubi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora violaceolivida is saprobic on dead bark of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / parasite
effuse, hypophyllous colony of Peronospora rubi parasitises leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pezicula rubi is saprobic on dead stem (rather thick) of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 7-1

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed then erupting apothecium of Phacidium pusillum is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phanerochaete martelliana is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
swarming, subsessile apothecium of Phialina separabilis is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 9-1

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella albida is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella bourdotii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella fibrillosa is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiella filicina is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Phlebiopsis ravenelii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
covered pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis corticis is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis muelleri is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-3

Foodplant / parasite
caeomoid, scattered or confluent aecium of Phragmidium violaceum parasitises live midrib of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 5
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, 2-4 per spot pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta ruborum causes spots on live leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 8

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Ploettnera exigua is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 7-1

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pluteus phlebophorus is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: unusual host/prey

Fungus / parasite
Podosphaera aphanis parasitises live Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Pterula multifida is saprobic on dead, damp, decayed stem (woody) of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza escharodes is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-10

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, suberumpent apothecium of Pyrenopeziza maculata is saprobic on dead leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 6

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Ramariopsis pulchella is associated with Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Resupinatus applicatus is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Rubus Stunt phytoplasma infects and damages short, feeble canes (new) of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
short, fat-stalked apothecium of Rutstroemia fruticeti is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Rutstroemia rubi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 3-4

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, in rows pseudothecium of Saccothecium sepincola is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / spot causer
usually linearly arranged, immersed, then splitting epidermis pycnidium of Septocyta coelomycetous anamorph of Septocyta ruborum causes spots on live stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Simocybe haustellaris is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema coroniferum is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema efibulatum is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema octosporum is saprobic on dead woody stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Sistotrema pyrosporum is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmiella claviformis is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmiella dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmiella parva is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 9

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium clarkii is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 4

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Sporidesmium dematiaceous anamorph of Sporidesmium rubi is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Terana caerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
stalked apothecium of Torrendiella ciliata is saprobic on dead (recently), attachd leaf of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 8-1

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triadelphia dematiaceous anamorph of Triadelphia uniseptata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Triposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Triposporium elegans is saprobic on dead, often grey or purple stained stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-12
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, sessile apothecium of Unguicularia hamatopilosa is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 12

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered or linearly arranged, immersed pycnidium of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Valsella clypeata is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Vararia gallica is saprobic on dead, decayed stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, sessile apothecium of Velutarina rufo-olivacea is saprobic on dead stem of Rubus fruticosus agg.
Remarks: season: 1-12 (good condition: 8)
Other: major host/prey

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Foodplant / parasite
telium of Phragmidium bulbosum parasitises Rubus fruticosus sect. Corylifolii

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rubus fruticosus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rubus fruticosus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Rubus fruticosus agg.

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rubus fruticosus agg.

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

Status

not threatened (3).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

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Threats

This species is not threatened.
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© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

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Management

Conservation

Conservation action is not required for this species at present.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Wildscreen

Source: ARKive

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