Overview

Distribution

Range Description

L. singularis is endemic to southeast Spain (Lebeda et al. 2004). Its area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 2,000 km2.
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Range Description

L. perennis is native to parts of central, eastern, southeastern and southwestern Europe (USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program 2010).

Knowledge of the national distribution of this species is as follows:
  • Slovakia: scattered across the whole country except for the northern-most regions (Dostál and Červenka 1992).
  • Czech Republic: Vulnerable (Holub and Procházka 2000).
  • Hungary: North Hungarian Mountains (Gömör-Torna Karst region, Sátor mountain, Bükk-mountain, Mátra mountain, Karancs, Cserhát mountain), Transdanubian Mountains (Visegrád-mountain, Pilis-mountain, Buda-mountain, Gerecse-mountain, Velence-mountain, Várpalota) and Western Transdanubia (Sopron) (Soó 1966, Simon 1992).
  • France: widespread; occurs in the majority of departments except for nine departments to the northwest, Haut-Rhin and Territoire de Belfort to the east, Creuse and Haute-Vienne in central France, Landes and Gers in the southwest, and Corsica (Association Tela Botanica 2000–2010).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It is found on rocky slopes on high mountains.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
L. perennis grows in lowland to subalpine habitats, preferring calcium rich habitats such as rocky limestone slopes and long warm vegetative periods (Feráková 1977, Lebeda et al. 2004). It can also be found in sunny exposed areas and grassy slopes and vineyards (Polunin 1969, Feráková 1977), as well as dry oak forests, eutrophic ruderal sites, semi-dry meadows and pastures. Specifically, in Hungary, it grows in rocky grasslands (Seslerio-Festucetum pallentis), rocky steppes, sloped steppes and forest steppe meadows (Soó 1966, Simon 1992).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lactuca perennis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lactuca perennis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
B2ab(iii,v)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Draper, D.

Reviewer/s
Nieto, A. & Kell, S.P.

Contributor/s
Hargreaves , S. & Kell, S.P.

Justification
Lactuca singularis is assessed as Vulnerable because its area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 2,000 km2, its distribution is severely fragmented, and there is continuing decline in the extent and quality of its habitat and in in the number of mature individuals. As it grows at a high altitude it is particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Kell, S.P.

Reviewer/s
Maxted, N. & Nieto, A.

Contributor/s
Hargreaves , S., Eliáš, P., Vörösváry, G., Vögel, R., Holubec, V. & Draper, D.

Justification
European regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)
EU 27 regional assessment: Data Deficient (DD)

Lactuca perennis is assessed as Data Deficient as there is currently insufficient information available to evaluate this species. Information about its precise distribution, population size and trend is needed, as well as its in situ conservation status and potential threats.

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Population

Population
It is rare, localized and has a fragmented population.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Population

Population
The population trend in Slovakia is stable (P. Eliáš pers. comm. 2010) and is thought to be decreasing in Germany (R. Vögel pers. comm. 2010). Further research is needed to gather information about the population size and trend of this species throughout the rest of its range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
As this species grows at a high altitude, it is likely to be particularly affected by climate change.
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Major Threats
It is under threat in Europe due to the destruction of its natural habitats (Lebeda et al. 2004). The specific threats are however not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
L. singularis is protected by law in Andalucia and is listed as Vulnerable (VU) in the 2008 Spanish Red List (Moreno 2008). It occurs in protected areas.

No germplasm accessions of L. singularis are reported by EURISCO to be held in European genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). Germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is a priority for this species.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
L. perennis is listed as Lower Risk (LR) in Slovakia (Feráková et al. 2001). It is not protected in Hungary (Király 2007).

L. perennis ssp. granatensis Charpin & Fern. Casas is listed as Vulnerable (VU) in Spain (Moreno 2008).

The species is known to occur in protected areas. It is recommended that the monitoring and management of this species is incorporated into the existing management plans of these sites.

EURISCO reports 33 germplasm accessions of L. perennis held in European genebanks, 27 of which are reported to be of wild or weedy origin. Of the wild accessions, 12 originate from within Europe. Three of these originate from France (stored in Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands Plant Research International, Netherlands), six originate from Germany (stored in Genebank, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Germany) and three originate from Switzerland (two of which are stored in Centre for Genetic Resources, the Netherlands Plant Research International, Netherlands and one is stored in Genebank Department - Vegetable Section Olomouc, RICP Prague, Czech Republic) (EURISCO Catalogue 2010).
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Wikipedia

Lactuca perennis

Lactuca perennis, common names: Blue Lettuce or Perennial lettuce, is a perennial herbaceous plant species belonging to the genus Lactuca of the Asteraceae family.

Description[edit]

Lactuca perennis reaches on average 60 centimetres (24 in) of height, with a minimum height of 20 centimetres (7.9 in). This plant is glabrous, the stems is erect and branched, leaves are greyish-green, the lower ones with a small petioles, the upper ones partly amplexicaul. It is hermaphrodite and entomophilous. The flowers are violet-blue, with a size of 30–40 millimetres (1.2–1.6 in). The flowering period extends from April through August and the seeds ripen from July until September.

Flower of Lactuca perennis
Leaves of Lactuca perennis

Distribution[edit]

It is present in most of the Central and Southern Europe.

Habitat[edit]

These plants prefer calcareous well-drained soils and they are common on sunny rocky soils, on dry meadows, on roadsides and on banks of rivers. They can be found on average at 500–2,000 metres (1,600–6,600 ft) above sea level.

Medicinal properties[edit]

This wild lettuce has an abundant white latex (hence the Latin name lactuca of the species, meaning milk) containing the substance "lactucarium" with many medicinal properties. It is especially useful as sedative, but the plant should be used with caution.

References[edit]

  • Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia - Edagricole – 1982. vol. III
  • Medicinal Herbs
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