Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This plant is endemic to the island of Crete, Greece (Euro+Med Plantbase 2006-2011) where it grows from 5-150 m asl. It occurs at a few localities in the eastern part of Crete and at offshore islets:
  • Dia island (Panagia bay, Kappari bay, east coast)
  • Dragonada islet (west coast cliffs called Kolones)
  • Gianysada islet (north coast cliffs called Portes)
  • Sideros peninsula (cape Mavros, gorge west of Moni Toplou, over Karoumpes bay)
The extent of occurrence is around 900 km² and the area of occupancy is 32 km². (2x2 grid)
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Physical Description

Type Information

Isotype for Lyrolepis diae Rech. f.
Catalog Number: US 1940240
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): K. H. Rechinger
Year Collected: 1942
Locality: Insula Dia., Herakleion, Crete, Greece, Europe
  • Isotype: Rechinger, K. H. 1943. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 105 (2,1): 147.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This plant is found in crevices of steep calcareous rocks close to the sea. It is a chasmophyte but not a halophyte.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(v)+2ab(v); C2a(i)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2011

Assessor/s
Bazos, I.

Reviewer/s
Delipetrou, P. & Bilz, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
This plant is endemic to Crete and occurs a few localities in the eastern part of Crete and at the offshore islets Dia, Dragonada, Gianysada, and Sideros peninsula. The extent of occurrence is around 900 km² and the area of occupancy is 32 km². In total there are three to four subpopulations in five to six locations. The total population size is certainly lower than 1,000 mature individuals and each is believed to have less than 250 mature individuals. Grazing by introduced goats causes the populations to decline and confines them to inaccessible cliffs. The populations are probably also severely fragmented. It is therefore assessed as Endangered.
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Population

Population
In total there are three to four subpopulations in five to six locations. But there is no systematic estimation of the population size of Carlina diae. Greuter (1995) reported that the two largest subpopulations at cape Mavros and Dragonada consisted of “only some dozens of individuals” each, while there was a single individual at Toplou. He also reported that at Panagia bay on Dia there was a severe population reduction from a large number of plants in 1962 to only three remaining species in 1973 due to overgrazing. The plant was rare in the chasmophytic communities of Panagia bay but more abundant at the eastern coast in 2000 (Kypriotakis 2001). Total population size is certainly lower than 1,000 mature individuals and each is believed to have less than 250 mature individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Apparently, grazing confines the plant to the most inaccessible cliffs and has caused population decline. According to Greuter (1995), on Dia the plant is threatened by grazing by the Cretan “agrimi” (Capra aegagrus cretica) which was introduced on the island after 1955. Kypriotakis (1997) classified the plant as endangered (according to the old IUCN criteria) due to its rarity and decline by overgrazing. Grazing by goats is a pressure for the plant on Dragonada and Gianysada islets too.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is protected in Greece by the Presidential Decree 67/81. It was included in the Red Data Book (Phitos et al. 1995).
All of the subpopulations are included in the NATURA 2000 sites GR4310003 and GR4320006.
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