Comprehensive Description

Description of Nosema

Monomorphic and diplokaryotic but heterosporous in the sense of early and late spores; transmission is per os and transovarial; development at all stages is in direct contact with host cell cytoplasm; merogony with binary fission of diplokaryotic stages and multiple fission of stages with several diplokarya, these possibly reflecting a delay in cytoplasmic fission; sporogony involving binary fission of fusiform diplokaryotic cells; two types of spores are known, those produced early in infection (36 h) are pyriform, thin-walled and with 3-5 coils of the isofilar polar tube, and those produced later (after 54 h) are ovoid, 3-4 x 1.5-2 µm, thick walled and have 10 - 12 coils of the isofilar polar tube; both types are diplokaryotic and apart from the polar tube length are morphologically similar with lamellar polaroplast, centrally placed nuclei and small posterior vacuole; the early spores germinate in situ and are responsible for the spread of infection within the host, while the late spores are responsible for transmission between hosts; type species N. bombycis in all tissues of larvae, pupae and adults of silkworms Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera, Bombycidae) and other Lepidoptera.
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Source: BioPedia


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Animal / associate
Black Queen Cell virus (BQCV) is associated with Nosema


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Nosema (microsporidian)

For the genus in Lamiaceae, the mint family, see Nosema (plant).

Nosema is a genus of microsporidian parasites. The genus, circumscribed by Swiss botanist Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli in 1857, contains 81 species.[1] Most parasitise insects and other arthropods, and the best-known Nosema species parasitise honeybees, where they are considered a significant disease by beekeepers, often causing a colony to fail to thrive in the spring as they come out of their overwintering period. Eight species parasitize digeneans, a group of parasitic flatworms, and thus are hyperparasites, i.e. parasites of a parasite. [2]


Nosema locustae, which parasitises locusts and grasshoppers, and Nosema grylli, which parasitises crickets, have been transferred to Paranosema, or in the former case Antonospora. Nosema algerae, which parasitises anopheline mosquitoes, has been transferred to Brachiola. Nosema kingii, which parasitises fruit flies, and Nosema acridophagus, which parasitises grasshoppers, have been transferred to Tubilinosema.

Studies of DNA sequences imply that the boundaries between the genera Nosema and Vairimorpha are incorrectly drawn.


  1. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA. (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 473. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8. 
  2. ^ Toguebaye, B. S., Quilichini, Y., Diagne, P. M. & Marchand, B. 2014: Ultrastructure and development of Nosema podocotyloidis n. sp. (Microsporidia), a hyperparasite of Podocotyloides magnatestis (Trematoda), a parasite of Parapristipoma octolineatum (Teleostei). Parasite, 21, 44. doi:10.1051/parasite/2014044 PubMed open access publication - free to read
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