Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description of Stentor

Heterotrich ciliates, swimming or more usually attached, when attached posterior end is digitate and narrow, body expanding to a broad oral end. Adoral zone of membranelles extends around the margin of the oral end of the cell before descending into a buccal cavity. Unattached cells more rounded. Cells up to 1000 microns long. Body with numerous longitudinal kineties, and arching kineties also located on peristomial disc. Contractile. Often coloured, pink, blue, green etc.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 8 specimens in 4 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 0.5
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:3Public Records:3
Specimens with Sequences:3Public Species:2
Specimens with Barcodes:3Public BINs:1
Species:2         
Species With Barcodes:2         
          
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Stentor (protozoa)

Stentor, sometimes called trumpet animalcules, are a genus of filter-feeding, heterotrophic ciliate protists, representative of the heterotrichs. They are usually horn-shaped, and reach lengths of two millimeters; as such, they are among the biggest known extant unicellular organisms. They reproduce asexually through binary fission [1]

Appearance and characteristics[edit]

The body, or cortex, is generally horn-shaped, hence the association with the Greek herald and the former name "trumpet animalcule", with a ring of prominent cilia around the anterior "bell" that sweep in food and aid in swimming. Some reach several millimeters in length, making them among the largest single celled organisms. Stentor can come in different colors. For example, S. coeruleus can appear blue due to the presence of Stentorin, a natural pigment. As in many freshwater protozoans, Stentor has a contractile vacuole. Because the concentration of salt inside the cell and in the surrounding freshwater is different, Stentor must store water that enters it by osmosis and then discharge it from the vacuole. They can regenerate, and small fragments can grow into full organisms. Each cell has one (often elongated) macronucleus and several micronuclei.

Ecology[edit]

These protists are common worldwide in freshwater lakes and streams, only S. multiformis has been recorded from marine, freshwater and even terrestrial biotopes. They are usually attached to algal filaments or detritus. Some Stentor species, such as S. polymorphus, can live symbiotically with certain species of green algae (Chlorella). After being ingested, the algae live on while their host absorbs nutrients produced, whereas the algae, in turn, absorb and feed on the Stentor's metabolic wastes. Stentor species react to outside disturbances by contracting into a ball. Resting cysts are known from a few species.[2]

Systematics[edit]

The genus contains over twenty described species, including:[3][4]

The type species of the genus is Stentor muelleri Ehrenberg, 1831. According to recent molecular analyses, the genus seems to be monophyletic, and related to the genus Blepharisma.[5]

Video gallery[edit]

Stentor muelleri in mucous lorica
Stentor coeruleus dividing (binary fission)
Stentor muelleri, magnified 1000X

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Stentor". Microbewiki.kenyon.edu. Retrieved 2014-06-20. 
  2. ^ Tartar, Vance (1961). The biology of Stentor. International series of monographs on pure and applied biology: Division, Zoology 5. Pergammon Press. OCLC 558125. 
  3. ^ Kumazawa, H. (2002). "Notes on the taxonomy of Stentor Oken (Protozoa, Ciliophora) and a description of a new species". J. Plankton Res. 24 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1093/plankt/24.1.69. 
  4. ^ Foissner, W.; Wölfl, S. (1994). "Revision of the genus Stentor Oken (Protozoa: Ciliophora) and description of S. araucanus nov. spec. from South American lakes". J. Plankton Res. 16 (3): 255–289. doi:10.1093/plankt/16.3.255. 
  5. ^ Gong YC, Yu YH, Zhu FY, Feng WS (2007). "Molecular phylogeny of Stentor (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 54 (1): 45–8. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2006.00147.x. PMID 17300519. 
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