Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Haliotis tuberculata has a flattened, oval, 'ear-shaped' shell, up to 9 cm long and 6.5 cm broad, that is slightly coiled. The outer surface is greenish-brown to red and often mottled. The inner surface is lined with iridescent mother of pearl. A row of round, slightly raised holes runs along the bottom margin of the shell. The outer, larger, 5-7 of these are open while the remainder are closed. The foot is large and muscular.
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Distribution

absent from British and Irish mainlands
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.) (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Physical Description

Type Information

Unconfirmed type for Haliotis tuberculata Linnaeus, 1758
Catalog Number: USNM 179304
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
  • Unconfirmed type:
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 12 specimens in 5 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 3.5 - 40
  Temperature range (°C): 16.315 - 18.050
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.326 - 1.331
  Salinity (PPS): 36.285 - 38.201
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.477 - 5.541
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 0.123
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.940 - 1.379

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 3.5 - 40

Temperature range (°C): 16.315 - 18.050

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.326 - 1.331

Salinity (PPS): 36.285 - 38.201

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.477 - 5.541

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 0.123

Silicate (umol/l): 0.940 - 1.379
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 Found on rocky shores, from MLW to depths of about 40 m, commonly feeding on rocks covered with encrusting red algae.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Haliotis tuberculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 21 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTGATCAGGGCTCCTTGG---------------ACTGCCCTGAGTCTCCTAATCCGAGCAGAGCTCGGACAACCAGGAGCACTCCTAGGAGAC---GATCAACTCTATAATGTAATTGTAACAGCCCACGCTTTTGTTATAATTTTCTTTCTAGTTATACCACTTATAATTGGCGGATTTGGGAACTGACTAGTTCCCTTAATACTCGGAGCACCAGACATGGCTTTTCCTCGCCTCAACAACATAAGATTCTGACTTCTCCCTCCCTCTCTTACCCTCCTATTAACATCAGGTGCCGTAGAGAGCGGTGCAGGAACAGGATGAACAGTCTACCCGCCCCTATCAAGTAACCTTGCTCACGCAGGAGCATCAGTAGATCTTGCAATTTTTTCACTTCACTTAGCCGGAATCTCCTCAATTCTCGGAGCAGTCAATTTCATTACTACAGTCATAAATATACGAGTAAAAGCGCAACCCTTAGAGCGAATGCCTTTATTTGTTTGATCAGTAAAAATTACAGCTGTGCTTCTACTTCTCTCTCTCCCAGTTCTTGCTGGCGCAATCACAATACTTCTAACTGACCGTAACTTCAATACCTCATTCTTTGACCCAGCAGGGGGAGGAGACCCTATTCTATATCAACACCTATTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Haliotis tuberculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Green ormer

The green ormer, scientific name Haliotis tuberculata, is a species of sea snail, a coastal marine gastropod mollusc in the family Haliotidae, the abalones or ormer snails.[2]

The flesh of the green ormer is prized as a delicacy, and this has led to a decline in its population in some areas.

Drawing of a live specimen of Haliotis tuberculata Linneaus, 1758; right side view: d, foot; i, tentacular process of the mantle, passing through the shell-foramina

Taxonomy[edit]

Haliotis barbouri Foster, 1946 is a synonym for Haliotis varia.[3][4]

According to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) the following subspecies are recognized:[5]

Shell description[edit]

The shell of this species grows as large as 10 cm in length and 6.5 cm in width. This flattened, oval shell is an ear-shaped spiral with a mottled outer surface. At the bottom margin of the shell, there is a curving row of five to seven slightly raised respiratory apertures, through which the mantle extends with short, exhalant siphons. As the animal and the shell grow, new holes are formed and the older holes are sealed off. These holes collectively make up what is known as the selenizone, which forms as the shell grows. The inner surface of the shell has a thick layer of iridescent mother-of-pearl.

The large and muscular foot has numerous tentacles at the epipodium (the lateral grooves between the foot and the mantle).

Distribution[edit]

A Green ormer in captivity.

This species occurs on rocky shores in European waters from the Mediterranean Sea as far north as the Channel Islands.;[6] in the Atlantic Ocean off the Canary Islands and West Africa.

Feeding habits[edit]

The green ormer grazes on algae, especially sea lettuce. It breeds in summer, via external fertilisation.

Human use[edit]

In the Channel Islands[edit]

Ormers are considered a great delicacy in the British Channel Islands. Overfishing has led to a dramatic depletion in numbers since the latter half of the 19th century.

"Ormering" is now strictly regulated in order to preserve stocks. The gathering of ormers is now restricted to a number of "ormering tides", from January 1 to April 30, which occur on the full or new moon and two days following that. No ormers may be taken from the beach that are under 80 mm in shell length. Gatherers are not allowed to wear wetsuits or even put their heads underwater. Any breach of these laws is a criminal offence which can lead to a fine of up to £5,000 or six months in prison.[1]

The demand for ormers is such that they led to the world's first underwater arrest, when a Mr. Kempthorne-Leigh of Guernsey was illegally diving for ormers, and was arrested by a police officer in full diving gear.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Foster R. W. (1946). "The family Haliotidae in the Western Atlantic". Johnsonia 2: 37-40.
  2. ^ Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2012). Haliotis tuberculata Linnaeus, 1758. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140059 on 2013-02-05
  3. ^ Haliotis varia Linnaeus, 1758 Not found in the Western Atlantic. Malacolog Version 4.1.1. A Database of Western Atlantic Marine Mollusca. accessed 23 October 2009
  4. ^ ABMAP. Alphabetical List of All Taxa. The Abalone mapping project. accessed 23 October 2009.
  5. ^ WoRMS (2010). Haliotis tuberculata Linnaeus, 1758. In: Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S.; Rosenberg, G. (2010) World Marine Mollusca database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=140059 on 2010-09-05
  6. ^ Oliver, A.P.H. (2004). Guide to Seashells of the World. Buffalo: Firefly Books. 22.
  • Geiger D.L. & Owen B. (2012) Abalone: Worldwide Haliotidae. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. viii + 361 pp. [29 February 2012]
  • P.J. Hayward, and J.S. Ryland (1996). Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford University Press. p. 500. ISBN 0-19-854055-8. 
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