The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • AFPD. 2008. African Flowering Plants Database - Base de Donnees des Plantes a Fleurs D'Afrique.
  • Cent. Pl. Afr. Voy. Méroé 41. 1826. (Cent. Pl. Afr. Voy. Méroé)
  • Flann C. (ed) (2015). GCC: Global Compositae Checklist (version 5 (Beta), Jun 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Gibbs Russell, G. E., W. G. M. Welman, E. Retief, K. L. Immelman, G. Germishuizen, B. J. Pienaar, M. Van Wyk & A. Nicholas. 1987. List of species of southern African plants. Mem. Bot. Surv. S. Africa 2(1–2): 1–152(pt. 1), 1–270(pt. 2).
  • Jeffrey, C. 1988. Notes on Compositae: V. The Vernonieae in East Tropical Africa. Kew Bull. 43(2): 195–277.


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