Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Calliostoma zizyphinum has a regularly conical, straight sided shell, up to 3 cm high and 3 cm broad, with a sharp apex and a flat base. The shell has regular spiral grooves and ridges and up to 12-13 whorls. The shell is very 'clean' and can be yellowish, pale pink or violet with streaks and blotches of brown, red or purple. Occasionally, individuals are white. The body tissue is also colourful and may be flecked with purple, crimson, reddish brown and yellow. The foot has 4-5 pairs of epipodial tentacles.The white morph Calliostoma zizyphinum, var. lyonsi, is sometimes considered a separate species (Fretter & Graham, 1994).
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Description

This topshell has a straight-sided conical shell, usually with markings in pink and red. A white form lyonsii is common at some localities, especially in strong tidal streams. Juveniles could be confused with other topshells such as Clelandella clelandi.
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Distribution

Widely distributed all round the British Isles.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 722 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 120 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 141.35
  Temperature range (°C): 7.242 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 2.892 - 8.618
  Salinity (PPS): 34.218 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.013 - 6.665
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.333 - 0.626
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.114 - 5.019

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 141.35

Temperature range (°C): 7.242 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 2.892 - 8.618

Salinity (PPS): 34.218 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.013 - 6.665

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.333 - 0.626

Silicate (umol/l): 2.114 - 5.019
 
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 Calliostoma zizyphinum is found on seaweed covered rocky shores from extreme low water to 300 m depth in the sublittoral.
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Predominantly a sublittoral species, almost ubiquitous on rocky substrata where it feeds on a variety of sessile invertebrates, especially hydroids.
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Wikipedia

Calliostoma zizyphinum

Calliostoma zizyphinum, common name the European painted top shell, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Calliostomatidae.[1]

Description[edit]

The solid, regularly conical shell is straight-sided and imperforate. The shell contains up to 12-13 whorls. It is sculptured with regular spiral grooves and ridges, traversed by fine prosocline growth lines. The apex is minute, composed of a single smooth rounded whorl, Several whorls follow, each with 4 granose spiral ridges. These become smooth and either obsolete or narrow on the later whorls. The body whorl has a prominent peripheral keel bearing two broad ridges; ridges above suture in preceding whorls. Base of shell rather flat, inner lips reflected over shallow umbilical groove. The periphery is angular, encircled by a smooth rounded rib that becomes a supra-sutural band or fasciole on the spire. The base of the shell is nearly flat. The aperture is quadrate. The cylindrical columella is nearly straight.

The color of the shell is variable. The ground color is yellowish brown, pale pink, or violet with streaks and blotches of brown, red or purple on the periphery. Blotches on the keel are generally darker, more frequent and more regular than on other parts of shell. It is radiately clouded with brown on the upper surface. The base of the shelll is unicolored or obscurely radiately streaked. Pure white or violet specimens are occasionally found.

Parasites[edit]

This species is host to the following parasites:[1]

Predators[edit]

The starfish Asterias rubens is a known predator of Calliostoma zizyphinus [3]

Distribution[edit]

This marine species occurs in European waters from Northern Norway to the Azores; in the Mediterranean Sea.

References[edit]

  • Backeljau, T. (1986). Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
  • Harms, J. , 1993. Checklist of species (algae, invertebrates and vertebrates) found in the vicinity of the island of Helgoland (North Sea, German Bight) - a review of recent records. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuch. 47 1: 1-34.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. (2001). Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50: pp. 180–213
  • Muller, Y. (2004). Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp.
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