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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bouchet P.,Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2013). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Dyntaxa. 2013. Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at [15-01-2013].
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Graham, A., (1988). Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2] External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Janson K. 1985. A morphologic and genetic analysis of Littorina saxatilis (Prosobranchia) from Venice, and on the problem of saxatilis-rudis nomenclature. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 24(1): 51-59.
  • Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)
  • Littorina saxatilis agg.
  • Olivi, G.,. 1792. Zoologia Adriatica ossia Catalogo ragionata degli Animali del Golfo e delle Laguna di Venezia; preceduto da una Dissertazione sulla Storia fiscia e naturale del Golfo; e accompagnato da Memorie, ed Osservazioni di Fiscia Storia naturale ed Economia: i-xxxiii, 1-334, Plates 1-9. Bassano.
  • Reid D.G. 1996. Systematics and evolution of Littorina. The Ray Society 463p.
  • Reid, D. G. 1989. The Comparative Morphology, Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gastropod Family, Littorinidae. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 324: 1-110.
  • Reid, D.G., (1996). Systematics and evolution of Littorina. The Ray Society, London. External link.
  • SCOUPPE Christian, ZIEMSKI Frédéric, in : DORIS, 9/6/2012 : Littorina saxatilis (L. rudis, L. nigrolineata) (Olivi, 1792),
  • Syntype: Jeffreys, J. G. British Conchology. 3: 365.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526


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