The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA.
  • Abbott, RT. 1974. American seashells: the marine Mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. New York, NY. USA.
  • Andrews, J. 1981. A field guide: Texas shells. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.
  • Bequaert, JC. 1943. The genus Littorina in the western Atlantic. Johnsonia. 1: 1-27.
  • Bärlocher, F & SY Newell. 1994. Growth of the salt marsh periwinkle Littoraria irrorata on fungal and cordgrass diets. Mar. Biol. 118: 109-114.
  • Crist, RW & WC Banta. 1983. Distribution of the marsh periwinkle Littorina irrorata (Say) in a Virginia salt marsh. Gulf Res. Rep. 7: 225-235.
  • Duval, M., A. Calzetta, D. Rittschof. 1994. Behavioral responses of Littorina irrorata (SAY) to water-borne odors. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 20: 3321-3334.
  • Emerson, W., M. Jacobson. 1976. American The Museum of Natural History: guide to shells: land, freshwater and marine, from Nova Scotia to Florida. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Gosner, KL. 1978. A field guide to the Atlantic seashore: Invertebrates and seaweeds of the Atlantic coast from the Bay of Fundy to Cape Hatteras. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 329 pp.
  • Graça, M., S. Newell, R. Kneib. 2000. Grazing rates of organic matter and living fungal biomass of decaying Spartina alterniflora by three species of salt-marsh invertebrates. Marine Biology, 136: 281-289.
  • Graça, MA, Newell, SY & RT Kneib. 2000. Grazing rates of organic matter and living fungal biomass of decaying Spartina alterniflora by three species of salt-marsh invertebrates. Mar. Biol. 136: 281-289.
  • Gustafson, DJ, Kilheffer, J & BR Silliman. 2006. Relative effects of Littoraria irrorata and Prokelisia marginata on Spartina alterniflora. Estuar. Coasts. 29: 639-644.
  • Hamilton, P. 1976. Predation on Littorina irrorata by Callinectes sapidus (Crustacea: Portunidae). Bulletin of Marine Science, 26: 403-409.
  • Hamilton, P. 1982. Behavioral responses to visual stimuli by the snail, Littorina irrorata. Animal Behaviour, 30: 752-760.
  • Hamilton, P., S. Ardizzoni, J. Penn. 1983. Eye structure and optics in the intertidal snail Littorina irrorata. Journal of Comparative Physiology: A. Sensory neural and behavioral physiology, 152: 435-446.
  • Hamilton, PV. 1978. Intertidal distribution and long-term movements of Littorina irrorata (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Mar. Biol. 46: 49-58.
  • Henry, R., A. Williams, C. McBride. 1993. Responses of the marsh periwinkle, Littoraria (littorina) irrorata to temperature, salinity and desiccation, and the potential physiological relationship to climbing behavior. Marine Behavior and Physiology, 24: 45-54.
  • Hutchens, JJ, Jr. & K Walters. 2006. Gastropod abundance and biomass relationships with salt marsh vegetation within ocean-dominated South Carolina, USA estuaries. J. Shellfish. Res. 25: 947-953.
  • Hyman, L. 1967. The invertebrates. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, , Environmental Protection Agency. 2004. "Periwinkle (Littorina irrorata)" (On-line). N. C. Plant and Animal Species Fact Sheets. Accessed January 03, 2005 at
  • Newell, SY & F Bärlocher. Removal of fungal and total organic matter from decaying cordgrass leaves by shredder snails. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 171: 39-49.
  • Pechnik, J. 2000. Biology of the invertebrates. Boston: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
  • Purchon, R. 1968. The biology of the Mollusca. London: Pergamon Press.
  • Rehder, H. 1981. The Audubon Society field guide to North America seashells. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
  • Ruppert, EE & RD Barnes. Invertebrate zoology, 6th edition. Saunders College Publishing. Orlando, FL. USA. 1056 pp.
  • Ruppert, EE. & RS Fox. 1988. Seashore animals of the Southeast: A guide to common shallow-water invertebrates of the southeastern Atlantic coast. University of SC Press. Columbia, SC. USA. 429 pp.
  • Schindler, DE, Johnson, BM, MacKay, NA, Bouwes, N & JF Kitchell. 1994. Crab: snail size-structured interactions and salt marsh predation gradients. Oecologia. 97: 49-61.
  • Shirley, TC, Denoux, GJ & WB Stickle. 1978. Seasonal respiration in the marsh periwinkle, Littorina irrorata. Biol. Bull. 154: 322-334.
  • Silliman, BR & MD Bertness. 2002. A trophic cascade regulates salt marsh primary production. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 99: 10500-10505.
  • Silliman, BR, Layman, CA, Geyer, K & JC Zieman. 2004. Predation by the black-clawed mud crab, Panopeus herbstii, in Mid-Atlantic salt marshes: further evidence for top-down control of marsh grass production. Estuaries. 27: 188-196.
  • Silliman, BR, van de Koppel, Bertness, MD, Stanton, LE & LA Mendelssohn. 2005. Drought, snails, and large-scale die-off of southern US salt marshes. Science. 310: 1803-1806.
  • Snyder, R. 2001. "Salt Marsh Molluscs" (On-line). Flora and Fauna of Northwest Florida. Accessed December 22, 2004 at
  • Warren, JH. 1985. Climbing as an avoidance behavior in the salt marsh periwinkle, Littorina irrorata (Say). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 89: 11-28.
  • Whitelaw, D. 2000. "Prey availability for the diamondback terrapin population of Milford Marsh, Connecticut" (On-line). Research Conducted at the University of New Haven, Connecticut, 1999. Accessed January 03, 2005 at
  • Wilbur, K., C. Vonge. 1964. Physiology of Mollusca. New York: Academic Press.


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