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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology/Natural History: Lives lower on rocks than does L. planaxis. Migrates up and down rocks with the tide. Crawl out of tidepools at night, in during the day. Often hide at low tide in cracks or barnacle shells. Muscular waves of foot travel from front to rear (retrograde). The waves on the two sides of the foot are out of phase with one another (ditaxic). Feeds mainly on diatom films, microscopic algae, lichens, etc. Will also feed on Pelvetia, Ulva, other larger algae. Breeds in all seasons except summer. Eggs are laid underwater, individually packaged in flattened capsules within a sausage-shaped gelatinous mass coiled in a spiral and holding over 2000 eggs. Leptasterias hexactis feeds on this snail. Eye anatomy is similar to that of the land snail Helix aspera. In Oregon over 10% of individuals harbor parasitic flukes.

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© Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory

Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Periwinkle with height decidedly greater than the diameter, spire usually has 4 whorls, Aperture is purplish inside but has no white band inside the aperture. Shell has no umbilicus, columella is narrow. Shell height to 1.5 cm, shell is dark brown, purple, or black, often with lighter bands or a checkerboard pattern of whitish areas.
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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Distribution

Geographical Range: Kodiak Island, Alaska to Bahia de Tortuga, Baja California

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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Littorina lepida Gould, 1849
Catalog Number: USNM 677095
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Locality: Puget Sound, Washington, United States, North Pacific Ocean
  • Syntype: Gould, A. A. 1849. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 3: 83.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Syntype for Littorina lepida Gould, 1849
Catalog Number: USNM 5637
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Locality: Puget Sound, Washington, United States, North Pacific Ocean
  • Syntype: Gould, A. A. 1849. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 3: 83.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Lectotype for Littorina scutulata Gould, 1849
Catalog Number: USNM 5640
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Collector(s): C. Pickering
Locality: Puget Sound, Washington, United States, North Pacific Ocean
  • Lectotype: Gould, A. A. 1849. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 3: 83.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Paralectotype for Littorina scutulata Gould, 1849
Catalog Number: USNM 612308
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Locality: Puget Sound, Washington, United States, North Pacific Ocean
  • Paralectotype: Gould, A. A. 1849. Proc. Boston Soc. nat. Hist. 3: 83.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Look Alikes

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: L. sitkana has a diameter almost equal to the height, has spiral ridges.
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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 135 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 109 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 27.5
  Temperature range (°C): 9.215 - 10.345
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.774 - 6.931
  Salinity (PPS): 31.235 - 32.059
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.535 - 6.794
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.883 - 0.989
  Silicate (umol/l): 12.975 - 20.289

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 27.5

Temperature range (°C): 9.215 - 10.345

Nitrate (umol/L): 5.774 - 6.931

Salinity (PPS): 31.235 - 32.059

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.535 - 6.794

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.883 - 0.989

Silicate (umol/l): 12.975 - 20.289
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth Range: High and upper middle intertidal

Habitat: Common on rocky shores and rocks within bays.

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Source: Invertebrates of the Salish Sea

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Associations

Known predators

Littorina scutulata is prey of:
Thais emarginata
Acanthina spirata
Tipulidae
Arenaria melanocephala

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Monterey Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. W. Glynn, Community composition, structure, and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia Muricata - Balanus glandula association in Monterey Bay, California, Beaufortia 12(148):1-198, from p. 133 (1965).
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Source: SPIRE

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Known prey organisms

Littorina scutulata preys on:
Cyanobacteria
Bacillariophyceae

Based on studies in:
USA: California, Monterey Bay (Littoral, Rocky shore)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • P. W. Glynn, Community composition, structure, and interrelationships in the marine intertidal Endocladia Muricata - Balanus glandula association in Monterey Bay, California, Beaufortia 12(148):1-198, from p. 133 (1965).
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Source: SPIRE

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Littorina scutulata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Littorina scutulata

Littorina scutulata is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Littorinidae, the winkles or periwinkles.[1]

Description[edit source | edit]

Lives lower on rocks than does Littorina planaxis. Migrates up and down rocks with the tide. Crawl out of tidepools at night, in during the day. Often hide at low tide in cracks or barnacle shells. Muscular waves of foot travel from front to rear (retrograde). The waves on the two sides of the foot are out of phase with one another (ditaxic). Feeds mainly on diatom films, microscopic algae, lichens, etc. Will also feed on Pelvetia, Ulva, other larger algae. Breeds in all seasons except summer. Eggs are laid underwater, individually packaged in flattened capsules within a sausage-shaped gelatinous mass coiled in a spiral and holding over 2000 eggs. Leptasterias hexactis feeds on this snail. Eye anatomy is similar to that of the land snail Helix aspera. In Oregon over 10% of individuals harbor parasitic flukes.[2]

Distribution[edit source | edit]

Kodiak Island, Alaska to Bahia de Tortuga, Baja California.[2]

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ a b Littorina scutulata Gould, 1849. Reid, David G. (2009). Littorina scutulata Gould, 1849. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=445657 on 6 June 2010.
  2. ^ a b Littorina scutulata Rosario Beach Marine Laboratory ' at the Encyclopedia of Life
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