The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, R.T. 1974. American Seashells. 2nd ed. Van Nostrand Reinhold: New York, NY (USA). 663 pp.
  • Backeljau, T. 1986. Lijst van de recente mariene mollusken van België [List of the recent marine molluscs of Belgium]. Koninklijk Belgisch Instituut voor Natuurwetenschappen: Brussels, Belgium. 106 pp.
  • Bieler, R., (1992). Gastropod phylogeny and systematics. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 23, 311 -338. External link.
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Bromley, J.E.C., and J.S. Bleakney. 1984. Keys to the fauna and flora of Minas Basin. National Research Council of Canada Report 24119. 366 p.
  • Campbell, A., (1994). Seashores and shallow seas of Britain and Europe. London: Hamlyn. External link.
  • Dyntaxa. 2013. Swedish Taxonomic Database. Accessed at [15-01-2013].
  • Fretter, V. & Graham, A., (1994). British prosobranch molluscs: their functional anatomy and ecology, revised and updated edition. London: The Ray Society. External link.
  • Fretter, V. & Manly, R., (1977). Algal associations of Triclia pullus, Lacuna vincta & Cerithiopsis tuberculosis (Gastropoda) with special reference to the settlement of their larvae. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 57, 999-1017. External link.
  • Gofas, S.; Le Renard, J.; Bouchet, P. 2001. Mollusca, in: Costello, M.J. et al. (Ed.) (2001). European register of marine species: a check-list of the marine species in Europe and a bibliography of guides to their identification. Collection Patrimoines Naturels, 50:
  • Gosner, K.L. 1971. Guide to identification of marine and estuarine invertebrates: Cape Hatteras to the Bay of Fundy. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 693 p.
  • Graham, A., (1988). Molluscs: prosobranchs and pyramellid gastropods (2nd ed.). Leiden: E.J. Brill/Dr W. Backhuys. [Synopses of the British Fauna No. 2] External link.
  • Grahame, J., (1977). Reproductive effort and r- and K- selection in two species of Lacuna (Gastropoda: Prosobranchia). Marine Biology, 40, 217-224. External link.
  • Grahame, J., (1994). Energetics of growth and reproduction in 2 species of chink shells (Lacuna, Mollusca, Prosobranchia). Cahiers de Biologie Marine. 35, 327-338. External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • ITIS database
  • Jacobs, R.P.W.M., (1980). Effects of the Amoco Cadiz oil spill on the seagrass community at Roscoff with special reference to the benthic infauna. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 2, 207-212. External link.
  • Linkletter, L.E. 1977. A checklist of marine fauna and flora of the Bay of Fundy. Huntsman Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews, N.B. 68 p.
  • Martel, A. & Chia, F.S., (1991a). Oviposition, larval abundance, in situ larval growth and recruitment of the herbivorous gastropod, Lacuna vincta in kelp canopies of Barkley Sound, Vancouver Island (British Columbia). Marine Biology, 110, 237-247. External link.
  • Martel, A. & Diefenbach, T., (1993). Effects of body size, water currents and microhabitat on mucous thread drifting in post-metamorphic gastropods, Lacuna spp. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 19, 215-220. External link.
  • Muller, Y. 2004. Faune et flore du littoral du Nord, du Pas-de-Calais et de la Belgique: inventaire. [Coastal fauna and flora of the Nord, Pas-de-Calais and Belgium: inventory]. Commission Régionale de Biologie Région Nord Pas-de-Calais: France. 307 pp.
  • Padilla, D.K., Dittman, D.E., Franz, J. & Sladek, R., (1996). Radular production rates in 2 species of Lacuna, Turton (Gastropoda: Littorinidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 62, 275-280. External link.
  • Ponder, W.F. & Lindberg, D.R., (1997). Towards a phylogeny of gastropod molluscs: an analysis using morphological characters. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 119, 83-265. External link.
  • Reid, D. G. 1989. The Comparative Morphology, Phylogeny and Evolution of the Gastropod Family, Littorinidae. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 324: 1-110.
  • Rosenberg, G. 2004. Malacolog Version 3.3.2: Western Atlantic gastropod database. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.
  • Taylor, J.D.(ed.), (1996). Origin and Evolutionary Radiation of the Mollusca. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Trott, T.J. 2004. Cobscook Bay inventory: a historical checklist of marine invertebrates spanning 162 years. Northeastern Naturalist (Special Issue 2): 261 - 324.
  • Turgeon, D. D., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, W. K. Emerson, W. G. Lyons, W. Pratt, et al. 1988. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: mollusks. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 16. vii + 277
  • Turgeon, D. D., J. F. Quinn, Jr., A. E. Bogan, E. V. Coan, F. G. Hochberg, W. G. Lyons, et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26. 526
  • Turgeon, D.D., et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26


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