Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Herbs. Leaves opposite, often linear and glaucous. Flowers terminal, solitary, in loose cymes or in dense involucrate heads. Sepals united to form a tubular calyx; the calyx with numerous parallel obscure veins, bearing 4-10 epicalyx segments. Petals 5, entire, toothed or (in ours) deeply fimbriate; pink, red or white; coronal scales 0. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Fruit a 1-locular capsule with 4 teeth. Seeds flattened.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Dianthus L.:
Brazil (South America)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / pathogen
colony of Alternaria dematiaceous anamorph of Alternaria dianthicola infects and damages rotting flower-bud of Dianthus

Foodplant / miner
larva of Amauromyza flavifrons mines leaf of Dianthus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis sambuci sucks sap of live root of Dianthus
Remarks: season: summer

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
clustered, blackish pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomatous anamorph of Ascochyta dianthi causes spots on fading leaf of Dianthus
Remarks: season: summer

Foodplant / open feeder
epiphyllous, colonial Bryobia grazes on live leaf of Dianthus

Foodplant / miner
larva of Delia cardui mines live stem of Dianthus
Remarks: season: 9-

Foodplant / feeds on
colony of Fusarium anamorph of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi feeds on Dianthus

Foodplant / pathogen
embedded sorus of Microbotryum dianthorum infects and damages live anther of Dianthus

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora dianthi parasitises live Dianthus

Foodplant / saprobe
brown haloed, gregarious pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis caryophylli is saprobic on patchily bleached calyx of Dianthus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Rhizoecus sucks sap of live stem base of Dianthus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Trichoderma anamorph of Trichoderma longibrachiatum is saprobic on dead leaf of Dianthus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:236Public Records:169
Specimens with Sequences:224Public Species:105
Specimens with Barcodes:215Public BINs:0
Species:108         
Species With Barcodes:106         
          
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Dianthus

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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Dianthus

Dianthus is a genus of about 300 species of flowering plants in the family Caryophyllaceae, native mainly to Europe and Asia, with a few species extending south to north Africa, and one species (D. repens) in arctic North America. Common names include carnation (D. caryophyllus), pink (D. plumarius and related species) and sweet william (D. barbatus).

Description[edit]

The species are mostly herbaceous perennials, a few are annual or biennial, and some are low subshrubs with woody basal stems. The leaves are opposite, simple, mostly linear and often strongly glaucous grey-green to blue-green. The flowers have five petals, typically with a frilled or pinked margin, and are (in almost all species) pale to dark pink. One species, D. knappii, has yellow flowers with a purple centre. Some species, particularly the perennial pinks, are noted for their strong spicy fragrance.

Ecology[edit]

Dianthus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Cabbage Moth, Double-striped Pug, Large Yellow Underwing and The Lychnis. Also three species of Coleophora case-bearers feed exclusively on Dianthus; C. dianthi, C. dianthivora and C. musculella (which feeds exclusively on D. suberbus).

Etymology[edit]

The name Dianthus is from the Greek words dios ("god") and anthos ("flower"), and was cited by the Greek botanist Theophrastus. The color pink may be named after the flower, coming from the frilled edge of the flowers: the verb "pink" dates from the 14th century and means "to decorate with a perforated or punched pattern".

Sweet William Dwarf, Dianthus barbatus
Dianthus superbus

Cultivation[edit]

Dianthus species have been extensively bred and hybridised to produce many thousands of cultivars for garden use and floristry, in all shades of white, pink, yellow and red, with a huge variety of flower shapes and markings. They are often divided into the following main groups:-[1]

  • Border carnations - fully hardy, growing to 60 cm (24 in), large blooms
  • Perpetual flowering carnations - grown under glass, flowering throughout the year, often used for exhibition purposes, growing to 150 cm (59 in)
  • Malmaison carnations - derived from the variety 'Souvenir de la Malmaison', growing to 70 cm (28 in), grown for their intense "clove" fragrance
  • Old-fashioned pinks - older varieties; evergreen perennials forming mounds of blue-green foliage with masses of flowers in summer, growing to 45 cm (18 in)
  • Modern pinks - newer varieties, growing to 45 cm (18 in), often blooming two or three times per year
  • Alpine pinks - mat-forming perennials, suitable for the rockery or alpine garden, growing to 10 cm (4 in)

Over 100 varieties have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]

See also[edit]

Culture[edit]

Dianthus gratianopolitanus - the Cheddar Pink - was chosen as the County flower of Somerset in 2002 following a poll by the wild flora conservation charity Plantlife.[3] "Dianthus Japonicus" is the official flower of Hiratsuka City, Kanagawa Japan.

Selected species[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  2. ^ http://apps.rhs.org.uk/plantselector/searchbynameresults?nm=dianthus&op=0
  3. ^ Plantlife website County Flowers page'.'
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