Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 36 specimens in 3 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 22
  Temperature range (°C): 8.600 - 8.600
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.265 - 1.265
  Salinity (PPS): 7.618 - 7.618
  Oxygen (ml/l): 8.061 - 8.061
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.326 - 0.326
  Silicate (umol/l): 11.134 - 11.134

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 22
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:122
Specimens with Sequences:114
Specimens with Barcodes:112
Species:13
Species With Barcodes:13
Public Records:110
Public Species:13
Public BINs:10
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Theodoxus

Theodoxus is a genus of nerites, small water snails with an operculum, some of which live in freshwater, and some in both freshwater and brackish water, aquatic gastropod mollusks in the family Neritidae, the nerites. [3]

Distribution[edit]

The distribution of the genus Theodoxus includes Europe and northern Africa and also extends east to southern Iran.[4] No other species within Neritidae have sympatrical distribution with Theodoxus.[5] The distribution of the genus Theodoxus is an exception within Neritidae, because Neritidae live primarily in the southern hemisphere.[5] Species within Theodoxus are the only Neritidae snails, that live in temperate climate.[5]

Bunje & Lindberg (2007) presented the first phylogenetic hypothesis of the clade Theodoxus.[5] The evolution of the genus Theodoxus was affected by separating of Mediterranean sea and Paratethys sea in Miocene.[5]

Description[edit]

Representative row of radula teeth of T. fluviatilis

The shell in this genus is semiovular with a flat apertural plain. There is no umbilicus. The columella and inner whorls are dissolved.[4]

Species in the genus Theodoxus are highly variable in size, in color pattern of the periostracum, in details of the operculum and in the radula, and all these factors can make identification to species level very challenging.[6]

Ecology[edit]

These animals are live on stones, and often also under stones, in up to 5-6 m depth or deeper, feeding on algal covers.[4] Theodoxus needs rough surfaces in order to be able to digest its food, so a stony substrate is necessary.[4] Green algae are not consumed; Theodoxus has no cellulases.[4] These snails lay egg capsules containing 30-70 eggs each, usually on the shells of other Theodoxus animals; only one juvenile grows, the other eggs serve as food.[4]

Species[edit]

There were no systematic review of the genus Theodoxus as of 2007.[5] Bunje (2004) noted at least 34 extant taxa at species level in the genus Theodoxus. IUCN Red List (2015) provided conservation status for 23 species of Theodoxus.[7]

Species within the genus Theodoxus include:

Subgenus Brusinaella Andrusov, 1912[8]
Subgenus Calvertia Bourguignat, 1880[9]
Subgenus Neritonyx Andrusov, 1912[10]
Subgenus Ninniopsis Tomlin, 1930[11]
Subgenus Neritaea Roth, 1855[12]
Subgenus Theodoxus Montfort, 1810
Subgenus ?
Synonyms
  • Theodoxus burdigalensis (d'Orbigny, 1852) : synonym of † Theodoxus (Theodoxus) trifasciatus (Grateloup, 1839)
  • Theodoxus cariosus (Wood, 1828) and Theodoxus cariosa are synonyms of Neritina cariosa (Wood, 1828)[30]
  • Theodoxus dacicus Jekelius, 1944: synonym of † Theodoxus (Theodoxus) leobersdorfensis dacicus Jekelius, 1944
  • Theodoxus doriae Issel, 1865: synonym of Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) represented as Theodoxus (Theodoxus) fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Theodoxus euphraticus (Mousson, 1874)[31] is a synonym of Neritina euphratica Mousson, 1874[32]
  • Theodoxus intracarpatica Jekelius, 1944 : synonym of † Theodoxus intracarpaticus Jekelius, 1944
  • Theodoxus lutetianus Montfort, 1810: synonym of Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) represented as Theodoxus (Theodoxus) fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Theodoxus mariae (Handmann, 1887): synonym of † Neritina mariae Handmann, 1887
  • Theodoxus martensi (Brusina, 1884): synonym of † Ninnia martensi (Brusina, 1884)
  • Theodoxus neglectus is a synonym of Neritina neglecta (Pease, 1861)[30]
  • Theodoxus oslavanensis Rzehak, 1893: synonym of † Theodoxus (Theodoxus) cyrtocelis austriacus (Rzehak, 1893)
  • Theodoxus oualaniense (Lesson, 1831): synonym of Checked: verified by a taxonomic editorClithon oualaniense (Lesson, 1831)
  • Theodoxus perlongus Jekelius, 1944: synonym of † Theodoxus (Theodoxus) zografi perlongus Jekelius, 1944
  • Theodoxus petralbensis Jekelius, 1944: synonym of † Theodoxus (Theodoxus) zografi petralbensis Jekelius, 1944
  • Theodoxus pictus (Férussac, 1823): synonym of † Agapilia picta (Férussac, 1823)
  • Theodoxus reclivatus Say, 1822: synonym of Neritina usnea (Röding, 1798)
  • Theodoxus rumanus (Stefanescu, 1896): synonym of † Theodoxus (Calvertia) stefanescui (Fontannes, 1887)
  • Theodoxus scamandri (Calvert & Neumayr, 1880): synonym of † Theodoxus (Theodoxus) scamandrius (Calvert & Neumayr, 1880)
  • Theodoxus vespertinus : synonym of Neritina vespertinus (Sowerby, 1849)[30]
  • Theodoxus vetranici (Brusina, 1902): synonym of † Neritina vetranici (Brusina, 1902)
  • Theodoxus virginea (Linnaeus, 1758): synonym of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Theodoxus (Vittoclithon) pictus bizonalis (Grateloup, 1839): synonym of † Agapilia picta bizonalis (Grateloup, 1839)

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain text from the reference [4]

  1. ^ Montfort D. de (1810). Conchyliologie systématique, et classification méthodique des coquilles; offrant leurs figures, leur arrangement générique, leurs descriptions caractéristiques, leurs noms; ainsi que leur synonymie en plusieurs langues. Ouvrage destiné à faciliter l'étude des coquilles, ainsi que leur disposition dans les cabinets d'histoire naturelle. Coquilles univalves, non cloisonnées. Tome second. pp. [1-3], 1-676. Paris. (Schoell). page 350.
  2. ^ "Theodoxus ". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 12 April 2011.
  3. ^ Bouchet, P. (2014). Theodoxus Montfort, 1810. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=153531 on 2014-11-17.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "Genus summary for Theodoxus ". AnimalBase, last modified 24 February 2009, accessed 11 April 2011.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Bunje P. M. & Lindberg D. R. (2007). "Lineage divergence of a freshwater snail clade associated with post-Tethys marine basin development". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(2): 373–387. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.06.026.
  6. ^ Zettler M. L., Frankowski J., Bochert R. & Röhner M. (2004). "Morphological and ecological features of Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) from Baltic brackish water and German freshwater populations". Journal of Conchology 38(3): 305-316. .pdf PDF.
  7. ^ The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 March 2015. (Searching for "Theodoxus".)
  8. ^ Andrussov (1912). Verh. Russ. min. Ges. St. Pétersburg (2)49: 4
  9. ^ Bourguignat (1880). Etude Foss. Tert. Quat. Vallée Cettina, page 44.
  10. ^ Andrussov (1912). Verh. Russ. min. Ges. St. Pétersburg (2)49: page 4 (Brusinaella) and page 1 (Neritonyx).
  11. ^ Tomlin J. R. le B. (1930). "Some preoccupied generic names.—II". Proceedings of the Malacological Society of London 19(1): 22-24, page 24.
  12. ^ Roth (1855). Malak. Bl. 2: 56.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t "Species in genus Theodoxus " (n=20). AnimalBase, accessed 11 April 2011.
  14. ^ a b c "Neritaea". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 12 April 2011.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i (German) Schütt H. (1965). "Zur Systematik und Ökologie türkischer Süßwasserprosobranchier". Zoologische Mededelingen 41(3): 43-72, Plate 1. abstract, PDF.
  16. ^ Van Damme D. & Ghamizi M. (2009). Theodoxus niloticus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 April 2011.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Theodoxus ". Fauna Europaea, last update 27 January 2011, accessed 12 April 2011.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kantor Yu I., Vinarski M. V., Schileyko A. A. & Sysoev A. V. (published online on March 2, 2010). "Catalogue of the continental mollusks of Russia and adjacent territories". Version 2.3.1.
  19. ^ a b c d e Anistratenko V. V. (2005). "Lectotypes for Tricolia pullus, Gibbula divaricata and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Mollusca, Gastropoda) revisited". Vestnik zoologii 39(6): 3-10. PDF .
  20. ^ a b Bunje, P. M. E. (2005). "Pan-European phylogeography of the aquatic snail Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda: Neritidae)". Molecular Ecology 14 (14): 4323–4340. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02703.x. PMID 16313596.  edit PDF.
  21. ^ a b c Anistratenko O. Y., Starobogatov Y. I. & Anistratenko V. V. (1999). "Mollusks of the genus Theodoxus (Gastropoda, Pectinibranchia, Neritidae) from the Black and the Azov seas basin". Vestnik Zoologii 33: 11-19.
  22. ^ Zettler M. & Van Damme D. (2010). Theodoxus meridionalis. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 April 2011.
  23. ^ a b c Zettler M. L. (2007). "A redescription of Theodoxus schultzii (Grimm, 1877), an endemic neritid gastropod of the Caspian Sea". Journal of Conchology 39(3): 245-252. abstract.
  24. ^ a b Glöer P. (2002). Die Süßwassergastropoden Nord- und Mitteleuropas. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands, ConchBooks, Hackenheim, 326 pp., ISBN 3-925919-60-0.
  25. ^ WoRMS (2010). Theodoxus coronatus (Leach, 1815). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=216264 on 2011-04-11
  26. ^ ., A. Z. E.; ., N. S. I. (2006). "Population Structure and Shell Morphometrics of the Gastropod Theodoxus macri (Neritidae: Prosobranchia) from Azraq Oasis, Jordan". Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 9 (3): 549. doi:10.3923/pjbs.2006.549.552.  edit
  27. ^ Brown D. S. (1996). Theodoxus maresi. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 August 2007.
  28. ^ Van Damme D. & Ghamizi M. (2007). Theodoxus marteli. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 April 2011.
  29. ^ Van Damme D. & Ghamizi M. (2007). Theodoxus numidicus. In: IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 11 April 2011.
  30. ^ a b c Goodwin D. R. (2006). "The Discovery of Neritina (Theodoxus ) cariosa (Wood, 1828) on the Island of Maui, Hawaii (Gastropoda: Neritidae)". Visaya Net 11 pp. PDF.
  31. ^ Mansoorian A. (2001). "Freshwater Gastropod of Khuzestan Province, South-West Iran". Iranian Int. J. Sci. 2(2): 9 pp. PDF.
  32. ^ Glöer P. & Pešić V. (2012). "The freshwater snails (Gastropoda) of Iran, with descriptions of two new genera and eight new species". ZooKeys 219: 11-61, doi:10.3897/zookeys.219.3406.
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