The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • ADER Denis, DUMAS Jacques, in : DORIS, 12/4/2013 : Lanice conchilega (Pallas 1766),
  • Ansell, A.D., (1995). Surface activity of some benthic invertebrate prey in relation to the foraging activity of juvenile flatfishes. In Proceedings of the 28th European Marine Biology Symposium, Institute of Marine Biology, Crete. 23-28 September 1993. Biology and Ecology of Shallow Coastal Waters (ed. A. Eleftheriou, A.D. Ansell & C.J. Smith), pp. 245-252. Fredensborg: Olsen & Olsen External link.
  • Beaumont, A.R., Newman, P.B., Mills, D.K., Waldock, M.J., Miller, D. & Waite, M.E., (1989). Sandy-substrate microcosm studies on tributyl tin (TBT) toxicity to marine organisms. Scientia Marina, 53, 737-743. External link.
  • Beukema, J.J., (1990). Expected effects of changes in winter temperatures on benthic animals living in soft sediments in coastal North Sea areas. In Expected effects of climatic change on marine coastal ecosystems (ed. J.J. Beukema, W.J. Wolff & J.J.W.M. Brouns), pp. 83-92. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publ. External link.
  • Bryan, G.W., (1984). Pollution due to heavy metals and their compounds. In Marine Ecology: A Comprehensive, Integrated Treatise on Life in the Oceans and Coastal Waters, vol. 5. Ocean Management, part 3, (ed. O. Kinne), pp.1289-1431. New York: John Wiley & Sons. External link.
  • Buhr KJ. 1976. Suspension-Feeding and Assimilation Efficiency in Lanice conchilega (Polychaeta).* Marine Biology 38, 373-383
  • Buhr, K.J. & Winter, J.E., (1977). Distribution and maintenance of a Lanice conchilega association in the Weser estuary (FRG), with special reference to the suspension-feeding behaviour of Lanice conchilega. In Proceedings of the Eleventh European Symposium of Marine Biology, University College, Galway, 5-11 October 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.O. Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 101-113. Oxford: Pergamon Press. External link.
  • Carey, D.A., (1987). Sedimentological effects and palaeoecological implications of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega Pallas. Sedimentology, 34, 49-66. External link.
  • Collier, L.M. & Pinn, E.H., (1998). An assessment of the acute impact of the sea lice treatment Ivermectin on a benthic community. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 230, 131-147. External link.
  • Crisp, D.J. (ed.), (1964). The effects of the severe winter of 1962-63 on marine life in Britain. Journal of Animal Ecology, 33, 165-210. External link.
  • Crompton, T.R., (1997). Toxicants in the aqueous ecosystem. New York: John Wiley & Sons. External link.
  • Degraer S., J. Wittoeck, W. Appeltans, K. Cooreman, T. Deprez, H. Hillewaert, K. Hostens, J. Mees, E. Vanden Berghe & M. Vincx (2006). The macrobenthos atlas of the Belgian part of the North Sea. Belgian Science Policy. D/2005/1191/3. ISBN 90-810081-6-1. 164 pp.
  • Degraer, S., Moerkerke, G., Rabaut, M., Van Hoey, G., Du Four, I., Vincx, M., Henriet, J.P., Van Lancker, V., 2008. Very-high resolution side-scan sonar mapping of biogenic reefs of the tube-worm Lanice conchilega. Remote Sensing of Environment 112, 3323-3328.   10.1016/j.rse.2007.12.012 External link.
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Forster S. Graf G. 1995. Impact Of irrigation on oxygen flux into the sediment:intermittent pumping by Callianassa subterranea and "piston-pumping" by Lanice conchilega. Marine Biology 123:335-346
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J., (1994). Animals of sandy shores. Slough, England: The Richmond Publishing Co. Ltd. [Naturalists' Handbook 21.] External link.
  • Heuers, J. & Jaklin, S., (1999). Initial settlement of Lanice conchilega. Senckenbergiana Maritima, 29 (suppl.), 67-69. External link.
  • Holtmann, S.E.; Groenewold, A.; Schrader, K.H.M.; Asjes, J.; Craeymeersch, J.A.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; van Bostelen, A.J.; van der Meer, J. (1996). Atlas of the zoobenthos of the Dutch continental shelf. Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management: Rijswijk, The Netherlands. ISBN 90-369-4301-9. 243 pp.
  • Jones, S.E. & Jago, C.F., (1993). In situ assessment of modification of sediment properties by burrowing invertebrates. Marine Biology, 115, 133-142. External link.
  • Kuhl, H., (1972). Hydrography and biology of the Elbe Estuary. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 10, 225-309. External link.
  • Lanice conchilega (Pallas)
  • Pearson, T.H. & Rosenberg, R., (1978). Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review, 16, 229-311. External link.
  • Rabaut, M., Braeckman, U., Hendrickx, F., Vincx, M., Degraer, S., 2008. Experimental beam-trawling in Lanice conchilega reefs: Impact on the associated fauna. Fisheries Research 90, 209-216.
  • Rabaut, M., Vincx, M., Degraer, S., 2009. Do Lanice conchilega (sandmason) aggregations classify as reefs? Quantifying habitat modifying effects. Helgol. Mar. Res. 63, 37-46.
  • Read, G. (2014). Lanice conchilega (Pallas, 1766). In: Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2014) World Polychaeta database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Read, G.; Fauchald, K. (Ed.) (2013). WoRMS Polychaeta: World Polychaeta database (version 2013-03-04). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Rees, E.I.S., Nicholaidou, A. & Laskaridou, P., (1977). The effects of storms on the dynamics of shallow water benthic associations. In Proceedings of the 11th European Symposium on Marine Biology, Galway, Ireland, October 5-11, 1976. Biology of Benthic Organisms, (ed. B.F. Keegan, P.O Ceidigh & P.J.S. Boaden), pp. 465-474. External link.
  • Strasser M. Pieloth U. 2001. Recolonization pattern of the polychaete Lanice conchilega on an intertidal sand flat following the severe winter of 1995/96. Helgol Mar Res 55:176–181
  • Strasser, M. & Pielouth, U., (2001). Recolonization pattern of the polychaete Lanice conchilega on an intertidal sandflat following the severe winter of 1995/96. Helgoland Marine Research, 55, 176-181. External link.
  • Suchanek, T.H., (1993). Oil impacts on marine invertebrate populations and communities. American Zoologist, 33, 510-523. External link.
  • Van Hoey G. Guilini K. Rabaut M. Vincx M. Degraer S. 2008. Ecological implications of the presence of the tube-building polychaete Lanice conchilega on soft-bottom benthic ecosystems. Mar Biol 154:1009–1019
  • Vanaverbeke J., U. Braeckman, S. Claus, W. Courtens, N. De Hauwere, S. Degraer, K. Deneudt, A. Goffin, J. Mees, B. Merckx, P. Provoost, M. Rabaut, K. Soetaert E. Stienen and M. Vincx (2009). Analysis of long-term data from the Belgian Continental Shelf in the framework of science-based management of the coastal North Sea. Workshop Report WestBanks, Oostende 29/10-31/10/2008.
  • Weber K. Ernst W. 1978. Occurrence of Brominated Phenols in the Marine Polychaete Lanice conchilega. Naturwissenschaften 65:262.
  • Wood, E.M., (1987). Subtidal Ecology. London: Edward Arnold. External link.
  • Xu X. Song F. Fan X. Fang N. Shi J. 2009. A Novel Bromophenol from Marine Red Alga Symphyocladia latiuscula. Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 45(6): 811-813
  • Yonow, N., (1989). Feeding observations on Acteon tornatilis (Linnaeus) (Opisthobranchia: Acteonidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 55, 97-102. External link.


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