Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Unarmed shrubs or trees, with milky latex. Branching dichotomous. Leaves opposite. Flowers actinomorphic. Corolla white, the lobes overlapping to the left. Anthers sagittate at the base. Fruit composed of 2 free carpels; these dehiscent or not.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 168
Specimens with Sequences: 192
Specimens with Barcodes: 180
Species: 71
Species With Barcodes: 68
Public Records: 99
Public Species: 65
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Wikipedia

Tabernaemontana

Tabernaemontana is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apocynaceae. It has a pan-tropical distribution, found in Asia, Africa, Australia, North America, South America, and a wide assortment of oceanic islands.[1][2] These plants are shrubs and small trees growing to 1–15 m tall. The leaves are evergreen, opposite, 3–25 cm long, with milky sap; hence it is one of the diverse plant genera commonly called "milkwood". The flowers are fragrant, white, 1–5 cm in diameter.

The cultivar T. divaricata cv. 'Plena', with doubled-petaled flowers, is a popular houseplant.

Some members of the genus Tabernaemontana are used as additives to some versions of the psychedelic drink Ayahuasca;[3] the genus is known to contain ibogaine (e.g. in Bëcchëte, T. undulata) conolidine[4] and voacangine (namely in T. africana). T. sananho preparations are used in native medicine to treat eye injuries and as an anxiolytic, and T. heterophylla is used to treat dementia in the elderly.[5] Conolidine may be developed as a new class of pain-killer.[6] Caterpillars of the Oleander Hawk-moth (Daphnis nerii) have been found to feed on Pinwheel Flower (T. divaricata).

The genus commemorates the "father of German botany" Jacobus Theodorus Tabernaemontanus.

Species[1]
  1. Tabernaemontana abbreviata - Costa Rica
  2. Tabernaemontana africana - tropical Africa
  3. Tabernaemontana alba - Central America, Mexico, Florida, Cuba, Colombia
  4. Tabernaemontana alfaroi - Costa Rica, Panama
  5. Tabernaemontana allenii - Panama
  6. Tabernaemontana alternifolia - S India
  7. Tabernaemontana amplifolia - Colombia, Ecuador
  8. Tabernaemontana amygdalifolia - S Mexico, Central America, Cuba, Haiti, NW South America
  9. Tabernaemontana angulata - NE Brazil
  10. Tabernaemontana antheonycta - Borneo
  11. Tabernaemontana apoda - Cuba
  12. Tabernaemontana arborea - S Mexico, C America, Colombia
  13. Tabernaemontana attenuata - Trinidad, Venezuela, Suriname, Fr Guinea
  14. Tabernaemontana aurantiaca - Maluku, Papuasia, Vanuatu, Micronesia
  15. Tabernaemontana bouquetii - Congo, Gabon
  16. Tabernaemontana bovina - S China, N Indochina
  17. Tabernaemontana brachyantha - C Africa
  18. Tabernaemontana brasiliensis - Pará in Brazil
  19. Tabernaemontana bufalina - S China, Indochina, W Malaysia
  20. Tabernaemontana calcarea - Madagascar
  21. Tabernaemontana capuronii - Madagascar
  22. Tabernaemontana catharinensis - S South America
  23. Tabernaemontana cerea - Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname
  24. Tabernaemontana cerifera - New Caledonia
  25. Tabernaemontana chocoensis - Colombia
  26. Tabernaemontana ciliata - N Madagascar
  27. Tabernaemontana citrifolia - West Indies
  28. Tabernaemontana coffeoides - Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar
  29. Tabernaemontana columbiensis - SE Central America, NW South America
  30. Tabernaemontana contorta - Cameroon
  31. Tabernaemontana cordata - Mindanao
  32. Tabernaemontana coriacea - W Brazil, Peru, Bolivia
  33. Tabernaemontana corymbosa - S China, SE Asia
  34. Tabernaemontana crassa - W + C Africa
  35. Tabernaemontana crassifolia - N Madagascar
  36. Tabernaemontana cumata - Amazonas in NW Brazil
  37. Tabernaemontana cuspidata - NW South America
  38. Tabernaemontana cymosa - N South America
  39. Tabernaemontana debrayi - N Madagascar
  40. Tabernaemontana dichotoma - Sri Lanka, W Malaysia
  41. Tabernaemontana disticha - N South America
  42. Tabernaemontana divaricata - S China, Himalayas, N Indochina
  43. Tabernaemontana donnell-smithii - Mexico, Central America
  44. Tabernaemontana eglandulosa - Benin to Angola
  45. Tabernaemontana elegans - Somalia to KwaZulu-Natal
  46. Tabernaemontana eubracteata - S Mexico, NE Central America
  47. Tabernaemontana eusepala - NE Madagascar
  48. Tabernaemontana eusepaloides - NE Madagascar
  49. Tabernaemontana flavicans - NW South America
  50. Tabernaemontana gamblei - S India
  51. Tabernaemontana glabra - Mexico, Central America, NW South America
  52. Tabernaemontana glandulosa - Guinea to Congo R
  53. Tabernaemontana grandiflora - SE Central America, N South America
  54. Tabernaemontana hallei - Gabon, Cameroon
  55. Tabernaemontana hannae - Chiapas, Costa Rica
  56. Tabernaemontana heterophylla - SE Central America, N + C South America
  57. Tabernaemontana humblotii - Madagascar
  58. Tabernaemontana hystrix - Brazil
  59. Tabernaemontana inconspicua - Cameroon to Angola
  60. Tabernaemontana laeta - Brazil
  61. Tabernaemontana lagenaria - Fr Guinea, N Brazil, Peru
  62. Tabernaemontana laurifolia - Cayman Is., Jamaica
  63. Tabernaemontana leeuwenbergiana - Colombia
  64. Tabernaemontana letestui - Congo R, Gabon
  65. Tabernaemontana linkii - N + W South America
  66. Tabernaemontana litoralis - S Mexico, C America, Colombia
  67. Tabernaemontana longipes - SE C America, NW S America
  68. Tabernaemontana lorifera - N Brazil, Guyana, Suriname
  69. Tabernaemontana macrocalyx - N South America
  70. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa - Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Borneo, Sumatra
  71. Tabernaemontana markgrafiana - Panama, NW South America
  72. Tabernaemontana maxima - NW South America
  73. Tabernaemontana mocquerysii - Madagascar
  74. Tabernaemontana muricata - Amazonas in Brazil
  75. Tabernaemontana oaxacana - Oaxaca
  76. Tabernaemontana ochroleuca - Jamaica
  77. Tabernaemontana odoratissima - Zaïre, Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania
  78. Tabernaemontana oppositifolia - Puerto Rico
  79. Tabernaemontana ovalifolia - Jamaica
  80. Tabernaemontana pachysiphon - tropical C + E + S Africa
  81. Tabernaemontana palustris - NW South America
  82. Tabernaemontana panamensis - Panama, Colombia, Ecuador
  83. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui - S China, SE Asia, N Australia, Papuasia, Micronesia, Fr Polynesia
  84. Tabernaemontana pauciflora - SE Asia
  85. Tabernaemontana pauli - Costa Rica
  86. Tabernaemontana peduncularis - Indochina, W Malaysia
  87. Tabernaemontana penduliflora - Nigeria to Zaïre
  88. Tabernaemontana persicariifolia - Mauritius, Réunion
  89. Tabernaemontana peschiera - N Brazil, Suriname, Fr Guinea
  90. Tabernaemontana phymata - N Madagascar
  91. Tabernaemontana polyneura - W Malaysia
  92. Tabernaemontana psorocarpa - W Africa
  93. Tabernaemontana remota - Sulawesi, Rossel I in Papua New Guinea
  94. Tabernaemontana retusa - Madagascar
  95. Tabernaemontana robinsonii - Colombia, Central America
  96. Tabernaemontana rostrata - Bangladesh to Philippines
  97. Tabernaemontana rupicola - N South America
  98. Tabernaemontana salomonensis - Solomon Islands
  99. Tabernaemontana salzmannii - E Brazil
  100. Tabernaemontana sambiranensis - N Madagascar
  101. Tabernaemontana sananho - N South America
  102. Tabernaemontana sessilifolia - Madagascar
  103. Tabernaemontana simulans - Panama, Costa Rica
  104. Tabernaemontana siphilitica - N South America.
  105. Tabernaemontana solanifolia - Brazil
  106. Tabernaemontana sphaerocarpa - Java to Maluku
  107. Tabernaemontana stapfiana - Burundi to Zimbabwe
  108. Tabernaemontana stellata - Madagascar
  109. Tabernaemontana stenoptera - Colima in Mexico
  110. Tabernaemontana stenosiphon - São Tomé
  111. Tabernaemontana ternifolia - Palawan
  112. Tabernaemontana thurstonii - Fiji
  113. Tabernaemontana tomentosa - Mexico
  114. Tabernaemontana undulata - Costa Rica to Fr Guiana + Bolivia
  115. Tabernaemontana vanheurckii - NW South America
  116. Tabernaemontana ventricosa - Nigeria to KwaZulu-Natal
  117. Tabernaemontana venusta - Oaxaca
  118. Tabernaemontana wullschlaegelii - Jamaica

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "WCSP (2013). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families". Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 6 October 2013. 
  2. ^ Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 152 狗牙花属 gou ya hua shu Tabernaemontana Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 210. 1753.
  3. ^ Ott (1995)
  4. ^ Kam T.S., Pang H.S., Choo Y.M., Komiyama K. ,"Biologically active ibogan and vallesamine derivatives from Tabernaemontana divaricata."Chemistry & biodiversity 2004 1:4 (646-656)
  5. ^ Rodrigues & Carlini (2006)
  6. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2011/05/23/3224191.htm
  • Ott, Jonathan (1995): In: Ayahuasca Analogues: Pangaean Entheogens.
  • Rodrigues, Eliana & Carlini, E.A. (2006): Plants with possible psychoactive effects used by the Krahô Indians, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria 28(4): 277-282. PDF fulltext
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