Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Found on the continental slope and ocean floor (Ref. 26346). Appears to feed mainly on shellfish and crustaceans (Ref. 6871). Maximum length 120 cm without tail filament (Ref. 26346).
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Distribution

Nova Scotia to Chesapeake Bay
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Range Description

Range appears to be widespread and worldwide (although not widely recorded in the Indian Ocean at present), with the largest numbers recorded from the western Pacific and northern Atlantic. Nothing is known of population structure, although molecular evidence may support regional populations. Other species of chimaeroids appear to have wide ranges (e.g., R. atlantica and R. pacifica), but H. raleighana is the only chimaeroid that may be global in its distribution.

Harriotta raleighana has been recorded from the Canary Islands, however it should be noted that references to the species from that location by Bigelow and Schroeder (1953) may in fact be referred to as H. haeckeli.
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Eastern Atlantic: Iceland, Faeroe Islands, Rockall Trough along Ireland to northern France; Canary Islands and off Cap Blanc, Mauritania; Namibia and South Africa (Ref. 5578). Western Atlantic: Nova Scotia, Canada to Chesapeake Bay in USA; southern Brazil. North Pacific: off Japan and California, USA; also 100 km off southern Baja California. South Pacific: off New Zealand and Australia (Ref. 7300).
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Atlantic, North Pacific, southwestern Indian Ocean, Australia and New Zealand.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 1; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 0
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Size

Maximum size: 1200 mm OT
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Max. size

120 cm OT (male/unsexed; (Ref. 26346)); 102.5 cm TL (female)
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Diagnostic Description

A longnose chimaera with a rather long, narrow, depressed snout, a small eye situated above or behind the mouth, a rather long first dorsal fin and spine, knobby tooth plates, and caudal fin lanceolate with no tubercles on upper edge but with a long terminal filament (Ref. 5578, 6871, 41248). Dark brown or blackish in color (Ref. 5578). No separate anal fin. Claspers are rod like, rather slender, unbranched, with tip somewhat swollen. Jugular and oral canals arising separately from orbital, with a short interspace; angular (maxillary) canal joining suborbital about 2/7 of distance from front level of eye toward tip of snout (Ref. 41248).
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Type Information

Type for Harriotta raleighana Goode & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 87552
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Locality: Sta. 5685 Lower California., California, United States, Pacific
Vessel: Albatross
  • Type:
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Harriotta raleighana Goode & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 38200
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Nantucket To Cape Charles, Virginia, United States, Atlantic
Depth (m): 1428
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paralectotype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.; Syntype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Harriotta raleighana Goode & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 39415
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1885
Locality: Cape Sable To Cape May, New Jersey, United States, Atlantic
Depth (m): 1977 to 1977
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paralectotype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.; Syntype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.
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Lectotype; Syntype for Harriotta raleighana Goode & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 35520
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Cape Hatteras To Nantucket, New Jersey, United States, Atlantic
Depth (m): 1812 to 1812
Vessel: Albatross
  • Lectotype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.; Syntype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.
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Paralectotype; Syntype for Harriotta raleighana Goode & Bean
Catalog Number: USNM 35631
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Year Collected: 1884
Locality: Cape Hatteras to Nantucket, New Jersey, United States, Atlantic
Depth (m): 1293 to 1293
Vessel: Albatross
  • Paralectotype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.; Syntype: Jordan, D. J. & Evermann, B. W. 1900. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 47: 3234, 42.; Goode, G. B. & Bean, T. H. 26 Jan. 1895. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 17 (1014): 472, pl. 19.
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Ecology

Habitat

benthic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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deep slope waters at depths of 622 to 1976 m
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Occur primarily in deep waters of continental slopes at depths at 380 to 2,600 m.

Oviparous but nothing is known of spawning and reproduction and very few juveniles have been collected. As with many other chimaeroids adults and juveniles may occupy different habitats. Diet may consist of a variety of benthic invertebrates and fish.

Life history parameters
Age at maturity (years): Unknown.
Size at maturity (body length): ~35 cm BDL (estimate) (female); ~25 to 30 cm BDL (estimate) (male).
Longevity (years): Unknown.
Maximum size (total length): 120 cm TL (females larger than males).
Size at birth (cm): Unknown.
Average reproductive age (years): Unknown.
Gestation time (months): Unknown.
Reproductive periodicity: Unknown.
Average annual fecundity or litter size: Unknown.
Annual rate of population increase: Unknown.
Natural mortality: Unknown.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

bathydemersal; marine; depth range 200 - 2600 m (Ref. 6871)
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Depth range based on 5027 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4257 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 218.5 - 3099
  Temperature range (°C): 2.457 - 10.885
  Nitrate (umol/L): 12.424 - 36.004
  Salinity (PPS): 34.093 - 35.567
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.631 - 6.736
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.964 - 2.449
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.000 - 67.321

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 218.5 - 3099

Temperature range (°C): 2.457 - 10.885

Nitrate (umol/L): 12.424 - 36.004

Salinity (PPS): 34.093 - 35.567

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.631 - 6.736

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.964 - 2.449

Silicate (umol/l): 0.000 - 67.321
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 350 - 2600m.
From 350 to 2600 meters.

Habitat: bathydemersal. Very little is known of its biology. Appears to feed mainly on shellfish and crustaceans that live on the bottom of the continental slope. Oviparous.
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental slope and ocean floor. Benthopelagic, occurs 600-2150 m depth (Ref. 58744). Appears to feed mainly on shellfish and crustaceans.
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Carnivorous, small invertebrates and fishes
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Life Cycle

Oviparous, young hatch at about 10-13 cm (Ref. 26346).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Harriotta raleighana

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Harriotta raleighana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2006

Assessor/s
Dagit, D.D.

Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M., Fowler, S.L. & Compagno, L.J.V. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species appears to be the only chimaeroid with a widespread, global distribution. Occurs in deep waters of the continental slopes in depths of 380 to 2,600 m in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also occurs in the Indian Ocean (off southern Australia). They seem to be somewhat common in the Northern Atlantic, Northwest Pacific and Southwest Pacific, however, very little is known about the biology of this species. They are oviparous but nothing is known of spawning and reproduction and very few juveniles have been collected. As with many other chimaeroids adults and juveniles may occupy different habitats. Known to be captured in deepwater research trawls and as bycatch in deepwater commercial trawls. Data from the South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery (south of Tasmania, Australia) indicates that this species is a negligible component of bycatch. Increased deepwater trawl fisheries could pose a potential threat to habitats and populations in the future. At present this species appears to be widespread geographically and bathymetrically and relatively abundant with no immediate threats to the population and is thus classified as Least Concern. However, bycatch data from other fisheries and the monitoring of expanding deepwater fisheries are required.
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Population

Population
Appears to be fairly abundant in areas where they are known to occur.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
Not known to be targeted in any commercial fishery but caught as bycatch in commercial deepwater bottom trawls, although the only such data on bycatch available is from the South Tasman Rise Trawl Fishery (STRF). The STRF targets orange roughy and other deepwater teleost species south of Tasmania as a straddling stock between Australia and New Zealand. Harriotta raleighana was a negligible component of bycatch with an estimated catch of 0.31t in 545 tows between November 1998 and September 2000 (<0.1 of total catch) of which 8% was retained (Anderson and Clark 2003).

Seem to be relatively common in deepwater survey trawls. Increased deepwater trawl fisheries could pose a potential threat to habitats and populations in the future and monitoring would be required.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
No management or conservation measures are known to be in place. Data from specimens collected incidentally would be helpful in understanding population structure and life history of this species.

The development and implementation of management plans (national and/or regional e.g., under the FAO International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks: IPOA?Sharks) are required to facilitate the conservation and sustainable management of all chondrichthyan species in the region. See Anon. (2004) for an update of progress made by nations in the range of H. raleighana.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
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Wikipedia

Narrownose chimaera

The narrownose chimaera, Harriotta raleighana, is a longnose chimaera of the family Rhinochimaeridae, found in temperate seas worldwide, at depths between 200 and 2,600 m. Its length is between 1.0 and 1.5 m, including a long, tapering snout and a long, filamentous tail.

References[edit]

  • Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Harriotta raleighana" in FishBase. March 2006 version.
  • Tony Ayling & Geoffrey Cox, Collins Guide to the Sea Fishes of New Zealand, (William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1982) ISBN 0-00-216987-8
  • Image
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