Overview

Brief Summary

History in the United States

There are no species of Ligustrum native to the U.S. Privets have been introduced to the U.S. since the 1800s and some species even earlier. They are commonly used as hedges in yards, gardens and other landscapes from which they have escaped and are now well established in the wild.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Comprehensive Description

Description

Shrubs or small trees. Leaves opposite, simple, entire. Flowers bisexual in terminal panicles, strong-scented. Corolla funnel-shaped. Fruit a 2-locular berry; loculi 1-2-seeded.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Distribution and Habitat in the United States

All four privet species featured here have been reported to be invasive in the mid-Atlantic region; some are recognized as invasive elsewhere in the eastern U.S. and nationwide. They thrive in floodplains, fields, disturbed forests and forest edges.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Origin

Japan (Border); Japan and South Korea (California); China (Chinese); Europe, Morocco, Western Asia and Caucasus (European)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description and Biology

  • Plant: deciduous or semi-evergreen shrubs that grow from 8-20 ft. tall; trunks with multiple stems with long leafy branches; the presence or absence of hairs and type of hairs on stems is helpful in distinguishing species.
  • Leaves: opposite, simple, entire, short-stalked, ranging in length from 1-3 in. and varying in shape from oval, elliptic to oblong.
  • Flowers, fruits and seeds: flowers small, white and tubular with four petals and occur in clusters at branch tips; fragrant; late spring to early summer (May to July); length of corolla tube length ranges from 1/10 in. (Chinese) to ¼ in. (border); anthers exceed the corolla lobes (Chinese and California); fruit is small black to blue-black oval to spherical drupe (i.e., a fleshy fruit with 1-several stony seeds inside), mature late summer to fall.
  • Spreads: by birds that consume fruits and excrete seeds undamaged in new locations; can spread locally through root sprouting.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes gall of stem (esp. base) of Ligustrum

Plant / associate
adult of Aneurus avenius is associated with dead twig of Ligustrum

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Ligustrum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / sap sucker
Chionaspis salicis sucks sap of live stem of Ligustrum

Foodplant / visitor
adult of Cryptocephalus nitidulus visits for nectar and/or pollen flower of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: early 5-9

Plant / resting place / on
female of Dendrothrips ornatus may be found on live leaf of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 4-5,7-9,11

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Ligustrum

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia ligustri is saprobic on dead twig (thin) of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 4-6

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead twig of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Helminthosporium dematiaceous anamorph of Helminthosporium velutinum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Ligustrum

Plant / associate
Lytta vesicatoria is associated with Ligustrum

Foodplant / saprobe
mostly epiphyllous, numerous pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella ligustri is saprobic on leaf of Ligustrum

Foodplant / gall
Myzus ligustri causes gall of discoloured, tightly curled leaf (young) of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: spring-summer

Plant / associate
perithecium of Nitschkia brevispina is associated with Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 2-4

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Perrotia flammea is saprobic on dead twig of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / gall
larva of Placochela ligustri causes gall of inflorescence of Ligustrum

Foodplant / pathogen
Rosellinia necatrix infects and damages yellowing, prematurely falling leaf of Ligustrum
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo vespa grazes on leaf of Ligustrum

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, in small groups from bark crack apothecium of Tympanis ligustri is saprobic on dead branch of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, stromatic, immersed, unilocular pycnidium of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Valsa cypri is saprobic on dead branch of Ligustrum
Remarks: season: 3

Foodplant / saprobe
colony of Xylohypha dematiaceous anamorph of Xylohypha nigrescens is saprobic on wood of Ligustrum

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:322Public Records:202
Specimens with Sequences:309Public Species:25
Specimens with Barcodes:297Public BINs:0
Species:33         
Species With Barcodes:31         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Ligustrum

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Management

Prevention and Control

Do not plant privets. Small plants can be dug out pulled out by hand or with the help of a mattock or heavy Weed Wrench® type tool. Larger plants can be cut repeatedly or treated with a systemic herbicide. Herbicide can be sprayed on foliage or applied to bark or cut stems and stumps. No biological controls are available for any of these species. Known pests that affect privets include a foliage-feeding insect native to Europe (Macrophya punctumalbum), a fungal leaf spot (Pseudocercospora ligustri) and a common root crown bacteria (Agrobacterium tume-faciens).

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Privets form dense thickets that shade out and take the place of native shrubs and herbaceous plants. The shady thickets make conditions unsuitable for native seedlings. Phenolic compounds in the leaves protect plants from leaf-feeding insects which include native herbivorous species.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Privet

For other uses, see Privet (disambiguation).
Wild privet, also sometimes known as Common privet or European privet (Ligustrum vulgare)

A privet is a flowering plant in the genus Ligustrum. The genus contains about 50 species of erect, deciduous or evergreen shrubs, sometimes forming small or medium-sized trees,[1]native to Europe, north Africa, Asia and Australasia.[2] Privet was originally the name for the European semi-evergreen shrub Ligustrum vulgare, and later also for the more reliably evergreen Ligustrum ovalifolium used extensively for privacy hedging, though now the name is applied to all members of the genus. The generic name was applied by Pliny the Elder (23 CE – 79) to L. vulgare.[3] It is often suggested that the name privet is related to private, but the OED states that there is no evidence to support this.[4][dead link]

Description[edit]

Privet (Ligustrum) is a group of shrubs and small trees of southern and eastern Asia, from the Himalaya extending into Australia. They may be evergreen or deciduous, and are tolerant of different soil types. They often have conspicuous flower heads. [5]

Uses and cultivation[edit]

In addition to being cultivated to create ornamental hedges and foliage, privet is also widely used in horticulture and flower arrangements.[6] The Oval leaf privet Ligustrum ovalifolium is used for hedges, while its flexible twigs are sometimes used as cords for lashing.[6] The tree species, especially Chinese privet is frequently used as a street tree in Europe, while other species including Ligustrum japonicum and Ligustrum quihoui are among the others also sometimes used as ornamental plants in gardens. [7]

Chinese privet is used in traditional herbal medicine.[8] The decoction of privet leaves or bark helps to treat diarrhea, stomach ulcers, chronic bowel problems, chapped lips, sore mouths and throats, and a wash for skin problems.[8] Privet leaves and bark have bitter properties that make a useful tea for improving appetite and digestion in chemotherapy patients.[8]

Some species produce a fruit, which is mildly toxic to humans.[6][9] Symptoms from eating privet fruit include nausea, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, low blood pressure, and low body temperature.[6] In large amounts, the odor produced from privet’s flowers can cause respiratory irritation and its pollen can cause an allergic reaction.[6]

Ecology[edit]

A plant may produce thousands of fruits, most of which are eaten by birds. Privet is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Common Emerald, Common Marbled Carpet, Copper Underling, the Engrailed, Mottled Beauty, Scalloped Hazel, Small Angle Shades, The V-pug and Willow Beauty.

Invasiveness[edit]

Privet is a successful invasive species because of its ability to outcompete and therefore displace native vegetation, due to its adaptability. Various species are now a problem in North America and Australasia.

Selected species[edit]

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System lists eleven "accepted" species of Ligustrum.[10] Additional species are listed in other references.[11][12][13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Webb, C. J.; Sykes, W. R.; Garnock-Jones, P. J. 1988: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. 4. Christchurch, New Zealand, Botany Division, D.S.I.R..
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ Foster, Steven; Rebecca Johnson (2008). National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature's Medicine. National Geographic Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-4262-0293-3. 
  4. ^ Oxford English Dictionary. privet, n.1 http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50188940
  5. ^ The Hillier Manual of Trees and Shrubs
  6. ^ a b c d e Urbatch, L. Chinese Privet: Plant Guide. USDA and NRCS.<http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_lisi.pdf>Retrieved March 15, 2013
  7. ^ European Garden Flora 2nd Edition Volume 4
  8. ^ a b c National Geographic Desk Reference to Nature’s Medicine <http://books.google.com/books?id=mE0z2MnIsloC&pg=PA116&lpg=PA116&dq=privet+leaves+or+bark+is+helpful+for+treating+diarrhea,+stomach+ulcers,+chronic+bowel+problems,+chapped+lips,+sore+mouths+and+throats,+and+a+wash+for+skin+problems.&source=bl&ots=52ZdiFT0GR&sig=CuYTZpv15WJEOqOH4Cp2Px5MrEc&hl=en&sa=X&ei=WXF0UbsZj6TyBJTDgOgF&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=privet%20leaves%20or%20bark%20is%20helpful%20for%20treating%20diarrhea%2C%20stomach%20ulcers%2C%20chronic%20bowel%20problems%2C%20chapped%20lips%2C%20sore%20mouths%20and%20throats%2C%20and%20a%20wash%20for%20skin%20problems.&f=false> Retrieved March 15, 2013
  9. ^ Plants for a Future, http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php?Ligustrum+japonicum
  10. ^ "ITIS Standard Report Page - Ligustrum". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2011-06-20. 
  11. ^ Flora of China: Ligustrum
  12. ^ Flora of Taiwan: Ligustrum
  13. ^ Flora Europaea: Ligustrum
  14. ^ Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Ligustrum australianum". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 27 June 2013. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!