Citrus species are small evergreen trees or shrubs growing to between 5 and 15 meters (15-45 feet) in height. Apparently native to northeast India, Myanmar and the Yunnan area of China, they have been introduced into cultivation around the world, primarily in subtropical and tropical regions. They are generally not frost hardy.
Citrus species hybridize readily and most species recognized are probably of hybrid origin, and only known from cultivation. Plants of the genus (oranges and pummelo) have been cultivated for at least 4400 years in China. This long history of cultivation and their easy hybridization confuses the issue of their native origin.
Also because of their easy hybridization, all commercially available varieties are reproduced through grafting.
Citrus fruits are known for their fragrance, and their high citric acid content which gives them a tangy flavor. They are eaten by humans either directly or used in preparing many dishes.
The plants require at least 25 cm/yr (10 in/yr) rainfall to be planted without irrigation. They have a fairly shallow but wide root system to collect water from their surroundings.
In addition to fruit consumption, all species are used in traditional medicine and their wood is used in crafts and for fuel.
- additional information from associated EOL articles
hypophyllous Coccus hesperidum sucks sap of live leaf (near veins) of Citrus
Remarks: season: 1-12
Foodplant / feeds on
Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis feeds on Citrus
Foodplant / sap sucker
Icerya purchasi sucks sap of live Citrus
Other: major host/prey
In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / sap sucker
hypophyllous Pulvinaria floccifera sucks sap of live leaf of Citrus
Evolution and Systematics
The plants cultivated for our popular caffeinated products- including Coffee, Tea, Cacao, Maté, Kola and Guarana- tend to produce fairly high levels of caffeine, but many others that you might not expect also produce it. It can be found in flowers of lemon and other citrus, for instance (Duke, 1992). Why do so many plants produce caffeine, especially in important tissues like flowers and fruit?
Some plants offer attractive chemicals in flowers or fruit as a reward to animals that, for instance, disperse their seeds. Researchers in Zurich have found this is not likely to be the primary use a plant has for caffeine, at least for Guarana. The outer part of the guarana fruit, which is eaten by large birds such as toucans, contains lots of sugar but no measurable caffeine. Experiments simulating the acid conditions of a bird’s digestive tract suggest very little caffeine is leeched from the seed before it leaves the bird’s body (Baumann et al, 1995; Goncalves, 1971).
Caffeine is widely listed as a secondary compound in plant chemical profiles, meaning a harmful or unpalatable chemical that discourages grazers. That could account for the caffeine in citrus flowers, too. If they’re not chemically defended, flowers could be eaten by herbivores before they have a chance to get pollinated and produce seeds. On the other hand, flowers also need to attract the attention of pollinators. Citrus pollen and nectar, both of which are harvested and consumed by pollinators, contain significant amounts of caffeine (Kretschmar and Baumann, 1999). The caffeine in the flowers may benefit the plant by discouraging herbivores, but it is equally plausible that it attracts pollinators- assuming they like the buzz.
- Baumann, Thomas W. , Schulthess, Brigitte H. and Karin Hänni. 1995. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) rewards seed dispersers without intoxicating them by caffeine. Phytochemistry. 39(5): 1063–1070
- Duke, James A. 1992. Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants. Boca Raton, FL. CRC Press.
- Goncalves, J. R. C., A Cultura do Guaraná. Instituto de Pesquisas Agronômicas do Norte (IPEAN), Belém, 1971
- Kretschmar, Josef A. and Thomas W. Baumann. 1999. Caffeine in Citrus flowers. Phytochemistry, 52(1): 19–23
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||318||Public Records:||206|
|Specimens with Sequences:||263||Public Species:||72|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||242||Public BINs:||0|
|Species With Barcodes:||75|
Locations of barcode samples
Kinnow (or kinoo) is a variety of mandarin (citrus fruit) often grown in the Punjab province of Pakistan, and to a lesser extent in northern Indian states, mainly Punjab and Rajasthan. The kinnow was developed by H. B. Frost at the University of California, Riverside in 1935, by cross-pollinating the King tangor and the Willow Leaf or Mediterranean Mandarin. Courtesy of the parent stock, another name for this hybrid citrus is Wilking.
The small orange fruits have more seeds per wedge in comparison to other citrus fruits. The seeds of kinnow are naturally diploid or tetraploid. Seedless triploid varieties have been developed, but these are still undergoing testing whether the fruit is healthy for consumption.
Kinnow season in the Northern Hemisphere starts in November and ends in March, a longer picking season than any other citrus variety.
Production and consumption
The kinnow is a hybrid of two citrus cultivars—"King" and "Willow Leaf"—and is classified as Kinnow mandarin. It was introduced from California to the Punjab Agricultural College and Research Institute, Lyallpur (now University of Agriculture, Faisalabad) in the subcontinent in 1943-44. This "easy peel" citrus has assumed special economic importance and export demand, being acknowledged for its high juice content, special flavour, and as a rich source of vitamin C. In per capita terms, the annual availability of citrus is nearly 12.5 kg, of which kinnow makes up about 8 kg. A consumption of 8 kg per capita implies the availability of 1206 milligrams of vitamin C, 1520 milligrams of calcium, 684 milligrams of phosphorus and nearly 16 milligrams of iron per head during the citrus production season. In the citrus production season, kinnow consumption can make a significant contribution to improve human diet in terms of total micronutrient intake.
Most of the target export markets of Pakistani kinnow are those of developing countries. Only 2.6 per cent of kinnow exports target markets of developed countries, which is due to the emerging demand for seedless kinnow by the developed countries. About 61 percent of total world exports of oranges and mandarins are of seedless varieties. Unfortunately, Pakistan is not producing seedless kinnow, due to which its target markets are limited and mostly confined to Middle East countries. Some important export markets for kinnow are: Bahrain, Dubai, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Netherlands, Philippines, Singapore, the United Kingdom and Vietnam.
Food processing includes the selection of good-quality mandarins. The ideal kinnow is firm to slightly soft, smooth-skinned with no deep grooves, and deep orange to almost red. Human hands can better judge and avoid product with soft spots, dull and faded coloring or rough and bumpy skin.
There are some juice extracting units in Pakistan, producing kinnow juice concentrate intended for export to the United States and the European Union. In India, the kinnow juice processing industry is developing rapidly. In 2008, two new juice processing plants began operating, each with a processing capacity of about 400 tons per day. Tropicana and Jain Irrigation have hired these plants from PunjabAgro to produce kinnow juice concentrate. The Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology in Patiala recently developed a patented method of debittering its juice.
- ^ Y. H. Hui, M. Pilar Cano, and Josef Barta (Editors). Handbook of Fruits and Fruit Processing. Wiley, John & Sons. 2006. ISBN 9780813819815; page 312.
- ^ Marketing of Fruits Under WTO Regime, Dr. M. Sharif and Burhan Ahmad, Social Sciences Institute, NARC Islamabad
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|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||126 kJ (30 kcal)|
|Dietary fiber||3 g|
|Vitamin C||29 mg (48%)|
|Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.|
Source: USDA Nutrient database
Lime is a term referring to a number of different fruits, both species and hybrids, citruses, which have their origin in the Himalayan region of India and which are typically round, green to yellow in color, 3–6 cm in diameter, and containing sour and acidic pulp. Limes are often used to accent the flavours of foods and beverages. They are usually smaller than lemons, and a source of vitamin C. Limes are grown all year round and are usually sweeter than lemons.
Limes are a small citrus fruit, Citrus aurantifolia, whose skin and flesh are green in color and which have an oval or round shape with a diameter between one to two inches. Limes can either be sour or sweet, with the latter not readily available in the United States. Sour limes possess a greater sugar and citric acid content than lemons and feature an acidic and tart taste, while sweet limes lack citric acid content and are sweet in flavor.
In cooking, lime is valued both for the acidity of its juice and the floral aroma of its zest. It is a very common ingredient in authentic Mexican, Southwestern United States, Vietnamese and Thai dishes. It is also used for its pickling properties in ceviche. Additionally, the leaves of lime are used in southeast Asian cuisine. The use of dried limes (called black lime or loomi) as a flavouring is typical of Persian cuisine and Iraqi cuisine, as well as in Gulf-style baharat (a spice mixture that is also called kabsa or kebsa). Lime is an essential ingredient of any cuisine from India and many varieties of pickles are made e.g. Sweetened lime pickle, salted pickle, Lemon Chutney  . Limes are also an essential element in Tamil cuisine.
Lime leaves are also a herb in South, East, and particularly Southeast Asia. In Vietnam, people have boiled chicken with lime leaves and a mixture of salt, black pepper and lime juice.
In order to prevent scurvy during the 19th century, British sailors were issued a daily allowance of citrus such as lemon, and later switched to lime, which was not as effective at preventing scurvy but led over time to the nickname "limey" for all Britons. It was later discovered that this beneficial effect derived from the 4-fold higher quantities of Vitamin C lemon juice contains compared to the West Indian limes used by the British.
Lime extracts and essential oils are frequently used in perfumes, cleaning products, and aromatherapy. Lime is also used occasionally to enhance vision by many Asian martial artists.[who?] It is done by squeezing a drop or two on the inside corner of the eye.
In India, the lime is used in Tantra for removing evil spirits. It is also combined with Indian chilis to make a protective charm to repel the evil eye . Furthermore, it was believed that hanging limes over sick peoples cured them of the illness by repelling evil spirits lurking inside the body.
India, with about 16% of the world's overall lemon and lime output, tops the production list, followed by Mexico (~14.5%), Argentina (~10%), Brazil (~8%) and Spain (~7%).
|Top ten lemon and limes producers — 2007|
|People's Republic of China||745100||F|
|No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);|
Plants known as "lime"
- Australian limes
- Blood lime
- Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) (a.k.a. kieffer lime; makrut, or magrood)
- Key lime (Citrus aurantifolia) (a.k.a. Mexican, West Indian, or Bartender's lime)
- Mandarin Lime (Citrus limonia)
- Musk lime (X Citrofortunella mitis)
- Palestine sweet lime (Citrus limettioides)
- Persian lime (Citrus x latifolia) (a.k.a. Tahiti or Bearss lime)
- Rangpur (fruit) (a.k.a. Rangpur lime), a mandarin orange - lemon hybrid.
- Spanish lime (Melicoccus bijugatus) (a.k.a. mamoncillo, mamón, ginep, quenepa, or limoncillo) (not a citrus)
- Sweet lime (Citrus limetta) (a.k.a. sweet limetta, Mediterranean sweet lemon)
- Wild lime (Adelia ricinella)
- Limequat (lime × kumquat)
- Lime tree (Tilia sp.)
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