Localities documented in Tropicos sources
Brazil (South America)
United States (North America)
Colombia (South America)
Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
- Forzza, R. C. & et al. 2010. 2010 Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100002289
- Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/1717
- Flora of China Editorial Committee. 2011. Fl. China 19: 1–884. Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100003187
- Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. 2. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Pp. 1-939. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100008595
- USDA, NRCS. 2007. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge. http://www.tropicos.org/Reference/100004579
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Anomoia purmunda feeds within fruit of Berberis
Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Arge berberidis grazes on live leaf of Berberis
Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Berberis
Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia auricula-judae is saprobic on wood of Berberis
Plant / associate
larva of Meliscaeva auricollis is associated with aphid-infested Berberis
Foodplant / saprobe
cyphelloid basidiocarp of Merismodes bresadolae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Berberis
Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Nectria pseudopeziza is saprobic on dead branch of Berberis
Remarks: season: 9-4
Foodplant / parasite
root of Orobanche lucorum parasitises live root of Berberis
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced
Foodplant / pathogen
Pseudomonas syringae pv. berberidis infects and damages cankered stem of Berberis
Foodplant / parasite
aecium of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici parasitises live Berberis
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||124||Public Records:||8|
|Specimens with Sequences:||115||Public Species:||2|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||110||Public BINs:||0|
|Species With Barcodes:||82|
Locations of barcode samples
Berberis (//) is a genus of about 450-500 species of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1–5 m tall with thorny shoots, found throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from Australia). Species diversity is greatest in South America, Africa and Asia; Europe has a few species, and North America two. The most well-known Berberis species is the so-called European barberry, Berberis vulgaris, which is common in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and central Asia.
The genus Berberis is characterised by dimorphic shoots, with long shoots which form the structure of the plant, and short shoots only 1–2 mm long. The leaves on long shoots are non-photosynthetic, developed into three-spined thorns 3–30 mm long; the bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic leaves. These leaves are 1–10 cm long, simple, and either entire, or with spiny margins. Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage style developing after the young plant is 1–2 years old.
Many deciduous species, such as Berberis thunbergii or B. vulgaris, are noted for their attractive pink or red autumn colour. In some evergreen species from China, such as B. candidula or B. verruculosa, the leaves are brilliant white beneath, a feature valued horticulturally. Some horticultural variants of B. thunbergii have dark red to violet foliage.
The flowers are produced singly or in racemes of up to 20 on a single flower-head. They are yellow or orange, 3–6 mm long, with six sepals and six petals in alternating whorls of three, the sepals usually coloured like the petals. The fruit is a small berry 5–15 mm long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; in some species, they may be either long and narrow, but are spherical in other species.
Some authors regard the compound-leaved species as a separate genus, Mahonia. Mahonia and Berberis sensu stricto are best regarded as one genus. There are no consistent differences between the two groups other than the compound leaves, and studies suggest that the simple-leaved group is very likely polyphyletic.
Berberis vulgaris (European barberry) and Berberis canadensis (American barberry) serve as alternate host species of the wheat rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), a grass-infecting rust fungus that is a serious fungal disease of wheat and related grains. For this reason, cultivation of B. vulgaris is prohibited in many areas, and imports to the United States are forbidden. The North American B. canadensis, native to Appalachia and the Midwest United States, was nearly eradicated for this reason, and is now rarely seen extant, with the most remaining occurrences in the Virginia mountains.
Some Berberis species have become invasive when planted outside of their native ranges, including B. glaucocarpa and B. darwinii in New Zealand (where it is now banned from sale and propagation), and green-leaved B. thunbergii in much of the eastern United States.
Several species of Berberis are popular garden shrubs, grown for such features as ornamental leaves, yellow flowers, or red or blue-black berries. Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been selected for garden use. Low-growing Berberis plants are also commonly planted as pedestrian barriers. Taller-growing species are valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars. For this reason they are often planted below potentially vulnerable windows, and used as hedges.
Species in cultivation include:-
- B. 'Georgei'
- B. x lologensis 'Apricot Queen'
- B. x media 'Red Jewel'
- B. x ottawensis f. purpurea 'Superba'
- B. x stenophylla 'Corallina Compacta'
- B. x stenophylla Lindl (golden barberry)
Berberis vulgaris grows in the wild in much of Europe and West Asia. It produces large crops of edible berries, rich in vitamin C, but with a sharp acid flavour. In Europe for many centuries the berries were used for culinary purposes in ways comparable to how citrus peel might be used. Today in Europe they are very infrequently used. The country in which they are used the most frequently today is Iran. In Iran the berries are common in rice pilafs and as a flavouring for poultry meat.
Berberis microphylla or the similar B. heterophylla (both known as Calafate), and B. darwinii (Michay) are two species found in Patagonia in Argentina and Chile. Their edible purple fruits are used for jams and infusions; anyone who tries a berry is said to be certain to return to Patagonia. The calafate and michay are symbols of Patagonia.
The dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris is used in herbal medicine. The active ingredients are thought to be the isoquinolone alkaloids, especially berberine. For more info see berberine. A new study from the Natural Medicine Journal shows that it is superior to Metformin in treating poly-cystic ovarian syndrome.
Historically, yellow dye was extracted from the stem, root, and bark.
Berberis aggregata, fruits.
Berberis gagnepainii, with three-spined thorn (modified long shoot leaf) with leafy short shoot. Each thorn is 20 mm long.
Berberis gagnepainii, flower detail (flowers 7 mm diameter).
Berberis gagnepainii, fruit.
Berberis thunbergii, shrub.
Berberis verruculosa, upper side of shoot above, lower side below.
- Flora of North America, vol 3
- Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
- Marroquín, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrière. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
- Laferrière, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
- "RHS Plant Selector Berberis 'Georgei' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × lologensis 'Apricot Queen' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × media 'Red Jewel' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × ottawensis f. purpurea 'Superba' / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × stenophylla 'Corallina Compacta' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × stenophylla Lindl. AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- See e.g. "Barberry" @ Alternative Medicine @ University of Maryland Medical Center. See also Berberine at Wikipedia.
- "Berberine Compared to Metformin in Women with PCOS - Natural Medicine Journal: The Official Journal of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians". Natural Medicine Journal. Retrieved 2013-04-07.
- Tomlinson, C., ed. (1866). Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts. London: Virtue & Co. Vol I, page 97.
- Murrills, Angela (2005-11-24). "Best Eating: Check, please". Straight.com. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- Wilkinson, Bobbie; Tom Wilkinson (2004-08-15). "It's an Adventure in Persian Cuisine at Darya Kabob". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- Arellano, Gustavo (2004-03-18). "Naan & Kabob". Orange County Weekly. Retrieved 2007-05-02.
- Royal New Zealand Institute of horticulture. Berberis glaucocarpa
Another species, Berberis kumaonensis Schneid., of this Section (Sec. Angulosae), with single flowered inflorescences and 3-fid spines, has been doubtfully recorded from Azad Kashmir (Muzaffrabad Dist.; Bangar, Inayat 2113 (K)by R.R. Stewart (l.c. 281). This record is probably not of true Berberis kumaonensis but just a form of Berberis parkeriana Schneid.