Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Shrubs. Wood and inner bark yellow. Shoots of two sorts: long shoots armed with, usually 3-partite, spines (which are morphologically leaves) and short shoots which bear clusters of simple leaves. Flowers yellow, 3-merous, borne in panicles, fascicles, racemes or solitary. Sepals c. 9, petaloid; petals 6, each with 2 glands at the base. Stamens 6, springing inwards when touched at the base. Ovary 1-locular; ovules few. Fruit a berry.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Distribution: Confined to Baluchistan in ouer area.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Glabrous, subglaucous shrub; stem terete, yellowish to pale brown or grey-brownish; internodes 1-2 cm long; spines 3-5 (-7)-fid., 5-10(-14) mm long. Leaves (1-) 2-4 cm long, 1-1.5 (-1.8) cm broad, suboribicular to obovate oblong, inclu¬ding (2-) 5-13 mm long petioles, somewhat thickish, reticulate, with open viens, (4-) 5-10-spinose-toothed (subserrate) at the margin; teeth 1-2 mm long; apex spine-tipped, rounded to obtuse, rarely acute. Flowers and fruits not seen.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Anomoia purmunda feeds within fruit of Berberis

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Arge berberidis grazes on live leaf of Berberis

Foodplant / pathogen
Armillaria mellea s.l. infects and damages Berberis

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia auricula-judae is saprobic on wood of Berberis

Plant / associate
larva of Meliscaeva auricollis is associated with aphid-infested Berberis

Foodplant / saprobe
cyphelloid basidiocarp of Merismodes bresadolae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Berberis

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial perithecium of Nectria pseudopeziza is saprobic on dead branch of Berberis
Remarks: season: 9-4

Foodplant / parasite
root of Orobanche lucorum parasitises live root of Berberis
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / pathogen
Pseudomonas syringae pv. berberidis infects and damages cankered stem of Berberis

Foodplant / parasite
aecium of Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici parasitises live Berberis

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:241
Specimens with Sequences:439
Specimens with Barcodes:181
Species:103
Species With Barcodes:101
Public Records:115
Public Species:94
Public BINs:0
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Berberis

Berberis (/ˈbɜrbərɪs/) is a large genus of deciduous and evergreen shrubs from 1–5 m tall found throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world (apart from Australia). Species diversity is greatest in South America, Africa and Asia; Europe and North America have native species as well. The most well-known Berberis species is the so-called European barberry, Berberis vulgaris, which is common in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, and central Asia. Many of the species have spines on the shoots and along the margins of the leaves.[1][2]

Description[edit]

The genus Berberis is characterised by dimorphic shoots, with long shoots which form the structure of the plant, and short shoots only 1–2 mm long. The leaves on long shoots are non-photosynthetic, developed into three-spined thorns 3–30 mm long; the bud in the axil of each thorn-leaf then develops a short shoot with several normal, photosynthetic leaves. These leaves are 1–10 cm long, simple, and either entire, or with spiny margins. Only on young seedlings do leaves develop on the long shoots, with the adult foliage style developing after the young plant is 1–2 years old.

Many deciduous species, such as Berberis thunbergii or B. vulgaris, are noted for their attractive pink or red autumn colour. In some evergreen species from China, such as B. candidula or B. verruculosa, the leaves are brilliant white beneath, a feature valued horticulturally. Some horticultural variants of B. thunbergii have dark red to violet foliage.

The flowers are produced singly or in racemes of up to 20 on a single flower-head. They are yellow or orange, 3–6 mm long, with six sepals and six petals in alternating whorls of three, the sepals usually coloured like the petals. The fruit is a small berry 5–15 mm long, ripening red or dark blue, often with a pink or violet waxy surface bloom; in some species, they may be either long and narrow, but are spherical in other species.

Some authors regard the compound-leaved species as a separate genus, Mahonia. Mahonia and Berberis sensu stricto are best regarded as one genus. There are no consistent differences between the two groups other than the compound leaves, and studies suggest that the simple-leaved group is very likely polyphyletic.[1][3][4][5]

Ecology[edit]

Berberis species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the moths Barberry Carpet Moth (Pareulype berberata), and Mottled Pug (Eupithecia exiguata).

Berberis vulgaris (European barberry) and Berberis canadensis (American barberry) serve as alternate host species of the wheat rust fungus (Puccinia graminis), a grass-infecting rust fungus that is a serious fungal disease of wheat and related grains. For this reason, cultivation of B. vulgaris is prohibited in many areas, and imports to the United States are forbidden. The North American B. canadensis, native to Appalachia and the Midwest United States, was nearly eradicated for this reason, and is now rarely seen extant, with the most remaining occurrences in the Virginia mountains.

Some Berberis species have become invasive when planted outside of their native ranges, including B. glaucocarpa and B. darwinii in New Zealand (where it is now banned from sale and propagation), and green-leaved B. thunbergii in much of the eastern United States.

Cultivation[edit]

Several species of Berberis are popular garden shrubs, grown for such features as ornamental leaves, yellow flowers, or red or blue-black berries. Numerous cultivars and hybrids have been selected for garden use. Low-growing Berberis plants are also commonly planted as pedestrian barriers. Taller-growing species are valued for crime prevention; being very dense, viciously spiny shrubs, they make very effective barriers impenetrable to burglars. For this reason they are often planted below potentially vulnerable windows, and used as hedges.

Species in cultivation include:-

The following hybrid selections have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • B. 'Georgei'[6]
  • B. x lologensis 'Apricot Queen'[7]
  • B. x media 'Red Jewel'[8]
  • B. x ottawensis f. purpurea 'Superba'[9]
  • B. x stenophylla 'Corallina Compacta'[10]
  • B. x stenophylla Lindl (golden barberry)[11]

Culinary uses[edit]

Berberis vulgaris grows in the wild in much of Europe and West Asia. It produces large crops of edible berries, rich in vitamin C, but with a sharp acid flavour. In Europe for many centuries the berries were used for culinary purposes in ways comparable to how citrus peel might be used. Today in Europe they are very infrequently used. The country in which they are used the most frequently today is Iran where they are referred to as "Zereshk" in Persian. The berries are common in Iranian (Persian) cuisine such as in rice pilafs (known as "Zereshk Polo") and as a flavouring for poultry meat. Due to their inherent sour flavor they are sometimes cooked with sugar before being added to Persian rice. Persian markets sell always sell Zereshk dried. In Russia they are sometimes used in jams (especially the mixed berry ones) and its extract is a common flavoring for the soft drinks and candies.

Berberis microphylla or the similar B. heterophylla (both known as Calafate), and B. darwinii (Michay) are two species found in Patagonia in Argentina and Chile. Their edible purple fruits are used for jams and infusions; anyone who tries a berry is said to be certain to return to Patagonia. The calafate and michay are symbols of Patagonia.

Traditional medicine[edit]

The dried fruit of Berberis vulgaris is used in herbal medicine.[12] The chemical constituents include isoquinolone alkaloids, especially berberine. A new study from the Natural Medicine Journal shows that it is superior to metformin in treating poly-cystic ovarian syndrome.[13][non-primary source needed]

Other uses[edit]

Historically, yellow dye was extracted from the stem, root, and bark.[14]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Flora of North America, vol 3
  2. ^ Flora of China Vol. 19 Page 715 小檗属 xiao bo shu Berberis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 330. 1753.
  3. ^ Loconte, H., & J. R. Estes. 1989. Phylogenetic systematics of Berberidaceae and Ranunculales (Magnoliidae). Systematic Botany 14:565-579.
  4. ^ Marroquín, Jorge S., & Joseph E. Laferrière. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 30(1):53-55.
  5. ^ Laferrière, Joseph E. 1997. Transfer of specific and infraspecific taxa from Mahonia to Berberis. Bot. Zhurn. 82(9):96-99.
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Berberis 'Georgei' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  7. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × lologensis 'Apricot Queen' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  8. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × media 'Red Jewel' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × ottawensis f. purpurea 'Superba' / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  10. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × stenophylla 'Corallina Compacta' AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  11. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Berberis × stenophylla Lindl. AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  12. ^ See e.g. "Barberry" @ Alternative Medicine @ University of Maryland Medical Center
  13. ^ "Berberine Compared to Metformin in Women with PCOS - Natural Medicine Journal: The Official Journal of the American Association of Naturopathic Physicians". Natural Medicine Journal. Retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  14. ^ Tomlinson, C., ed. (1866). Tomlinson's Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts. London: Virtue & Co.  Vol I, page 97.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Notes

Comments

An interesting discovery that probably extends the limits of the subsection Sibiricae (of section Angulosae) from N. & C. Asia, China, S.E. Tibet, Bhutan to Pakistan (Baluchistan). This species appears very near to Berberis boreali-sinensis Nakai in vegetative characters, especially 3-5(-7)-fid. spines but stem pale yellowish to brownish, spines 3-5(-7)-fid. (not 4-7-fid), leaves somewhat larger with usually distinct petioles, and spinulose-dentate (subserrulate) margins. It is interesting to note that inspite of 3 different gatherings from different localities, when all other Berberis in Baluchistan were fruiting and flowering, this was neither in fruits nor flowers. Unless flowers or fruits are found, it is not possible to decide its fate because in Berberis boreali-sinensis Nakai inflorescences are single flowered.

Another species, Berberis kumaonensis Schneid., of this Section (Sec. Angulosae), with single flowered inflorescences and 3-fid spines, has been doubtfully recorded from Azad Kashmir (Muzaffrabad Dist.; Bangar, Inayat 2113 (K)by R.R. Stewart (l.c. 281). This record is probably not of true Berberis kumaonensis but just a form of Berberis parkeriana Schneid.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!