Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:55
Specimens with Sequences:57
Specimens with Barcodes:52
Species:17
Species With Barcodes:13
Public Records:24
Public Species:9
Public BINs:0
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Xylosma A.guadamuz325

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Xylosma

Xylosma /zˈlɒzmə/[4] is a genus of flowering plants in the willow family, Salicaceae.[3] It contains around 100 species of spiny evergreen shrubs and trees[5] commonly known as brushhollies, xylosmas, or, more ambiguously, "logwoods". The generic name is derived from the Greek words ξύλον (xylon), meaning "wood," and ὀσμή (osmé), meaning "smell,"[6] referring to the fragrant wood of some of the species.[5] The Takhtajan system places it in the family Flacourtiaceae,[7] which is considered defunct by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.[3]

Description[edit]

The leaves are alternate, simple, entire or finely toothed, 2–10 cm (0.79–3.94 in) long. The flowers are small, yellowish, produced on racemes 1–3 cm (0.39–1.18 in) long, usually dioecious,[8] and have a strong scent. The fruit is a small purple-black berry 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) in diameter that contains 2 to 8 seeds.[5]

Range[edit]

The genus is predominantly native to the tropics and subtropics,[5] from the Caribbean, Central America, northern South America, the Pacific Islands, southern Asia and northern Australasia. Two species, X. congestum and X. japonicum, are found in warm-temperate eastern Asia (China, Korea and Japan).

Ecology[edit]

Xylosma foliage is used as food by the caterpillars of some lepidoptera, such as the Rustic (Cupha erymanthis), which feeds on X. racemosa, and the Common Leopard (Phalanta phalantha), which feeds on X. longifolium and X. racemosa.

Uses[edit]

The main use for the genus is as hedge and topiary plants among gardeners in desert and chaparral climates. Xylosma congestum is the species usually seen in garden hedges and in road landscaping, despite the fact it bears thorns. Other species cultivated for these purposes include X. bahamensis, X. flexuosa, and X. heterophyllum.[5] X. longifolium is sometimes grown in India for its edible fruits.[9] In addition, a medicinal extract is made from its young leaves that acts as antispasmodic, narcotic, and sedative.[10]

Selected species[edit]

Species include:[11][12][13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus Xylosma". Taxonomy. UniProt. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  2. ^ a b "!Xylosma G. Forst.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
  3. ^ a b c "Genus: Xylosma G. Forst". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  4. ^ Brenzel, K. N. (1995). Sunset Western Garden Book (6 ed.). Sunset Publishing Corporation. pp. 606–07. ISBN 978-0-376-03851-7. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Everett, T. H. (1982). The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture 10. Taylor & Francis. p. 3572. ISBN 978-0-8240-7240-7. 
  6. ^ Quattrocchi, U. (2000). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. IV R-Z. Taylor & Francis US. p. 2857. ISBN 978-0-8493-2678-3. 
  7. ^ Takhtajan, A. (2009). Flowering Plants (2 ed.). Springer. p. 226. ISBN 978-1-4020-9608-2. 
  8. ^ "Xylosma G. Forster, Fl. Ins. Austr. 72. 1786.". Flora of China. eFloras.org. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  9. ^ a b c P. Hanelt; Institute of Genetics and Crop Plant Research, ed. (2001). Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (Except Ornamentals) 3. Springer. p. 1374. ISBN 978-3-540-41017-1. 
  10. ^ Khare, C. P. (2007). Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. Springer. p. 725. ISBN 978-0-387-70637-5. 
  11. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Xylosma". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  12. ^ "Xylosma". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  13. ^ "Subordinate Taxa of !Xylosma G. Forst.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  14. ^ a b c d Grandtner, M. M. (2005). Elsevier's Dictionary of Trees 1. Elsevier. pp. 969–972. ISBN 978-0-444-51784-5. 
  15. ^ Heads, M. (2006). "Seed plants of Fiji: an ecological analysis" (PDF). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89: 459. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2006.00682.x. Retrieved 2010-03-05. 
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