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Overview

Brief Summary

New York State Invasive Species Information

Origin and Introduction:

Lonicera tatarica is native to Central Asia and Southern Russia and is believed to have been introduced into North America for ornamental purposes as early as the 1750s.  Lonicera japonica, – a native of China, Japan and Korea – was introduced for horticultural purposes in 1806 on Long Island; it was widely distributed as a garden plant through the early-1900s when it was finally recognized as a weed.  Lonicera maackii, also native to China, Japan and Korea, was introduced as seeds to arboreta throughout the U.S. in the late-1800s to determine whether the plant would grow in North America. This species of honeysuckle was utilized as a soil stabilization and wildlife planning until the mid-1980s and is still available for sale on-line.  Lonicera morrowii, a native of Japan, was imported to Massachusetts in the 1860s and was later released as an ornamental. All four species have escaped cultivation and are easily spread by birds.

Identification:

Lonicera morrowii,  Lonicera tatarica, and  Lonicera maackii, are perennial shrubs;  Lonicera japonica is a perennial woody vine (although its leaves can remain green throughout mild winters). The shrub forms range from 6 to 15 feet in height, while vines can reach 30 feet in length. The egg-shaped leaves range from 1 to 3 inches in length and are arranged oppositely along stems. Invasive honeysuckles begin flowering from May to June and bear small (less than 1 inch long), very fragrant tubular flowers ranging from creamy white through various shades of pink to crimson. Lonicera morrowii and Lonicera tatarica produce ¼ inch red berries from mid-summer through early-fall; Lonicera maackii’s dark-red berries don’t ripen until late-fall; Lonicera japonica produces dark-purple or black berries in the fall. Stems of all four are hollow.

Impacts:  

All three species can form very dense populations that can outcompete and suppress the growth of native plant species. These dense stands suppress the growth of other native species. Lonicera maackii leafs out very early in spring, giving it a competitive advantage over native plants. Lonicera japonica leaves are semi-evergreen allowing the plant to grow longer into the winter and giving it a competitive advantage over native vegetation. It shades out understory growth preventing the success of native understory plants and tree seedlings. Its vigorous vine growth covers native trees; the weight of the vine growth can bring down weak trees. By decreasing light availability to the understory, these invasive honeysuckles can alter habitats by depleting soil moisture and nutrients. The invasive honeysuckle berries do not contain the amount of fat and nutrients present in native honeysuckle berries; eating large amounts of the less nutritious invasive berries rather than native berries can have negative impacts on migrating.

Prevention and Control:

Because these plants spread rapidly via birds eating seeds, control should be started in late-summer or early-fall before seeds are ready to be dispersed. In early stages of invasion, or in cases where populations are at low levels, hand removal of honeysuckle seedlings or young plants is a viable option when repeated annually. Systemic herbicides can be utilized in cases of heavy infestation. Specific state rules should be followed and the appropriate (low environment impact, legally labeled for control of these plants) herbicides should be used. For invasive honeysuckles growing in open habitats, prescribed burning may be an effective control alternative.

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History in the United States

Exotic bush honeysuckles have been introduced for use as ornamentals, for wildlife cover and for soil erosion control.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Shrub with twining stems (in ours). Leaves simple. Flowers zygomorphic, in axillary pedunculate pairs. Corolla 2-lipped. Fruit a berry.
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Distribution

Distribution in the United States

Amur, Tartarian, Morrow's, and pretty honeysuckle generally range from the central Great Plains to southern New England and south to Tennessee and North Carolina. The remaining species are sporadically distributed.

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Native Range

Eurasia (Japan, China, Korea, Manchuria, Turkey and southern Russia) 
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Exotic bush honeysuckles are upright, generally deciduous shrubs that range from 6 to 15 feet in height. The 1-2 ½ inch, egg-shaped leaves are opposite along the stem and short-stalked. Older stems are often hollow. Pairs of fragrant, tubular flowers less than an inch long are borne along the stem in the leaf axils. Flower color varies from creamy white to pink or crimson in some varieties of Tartarian honeysuckle. Flowering generally occurs from early to late spring, but varies for each species and cultivar. The fruits are red to orange, many-seeded berries. Native bush honeysuckles may be confused with these exotic species and cultivars, so proper identification is necessary. Unlike the exotics, most of our native bush honeysuckles have solid stems.

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Diagnostic Description

Lonicera

Vines, shrubs, or trees. Leaves opposite or rarely in whorls of 3, sessile or petiolate; blades simple; stipules absent. Flowers bisexual, 5-merous, 2 or 3 in axillary cymes. Calyx tubular, 5-dentate or rarely truncate at the apex, adnate to the ovary; corolla zygomorphic, tubular, infundibuliform, or campanulate, with the limb bilabiate, with 2 long lobes and 3 short lobes; stamens 5, subequal, exserted; ovary inferior, with 2-3(-5) locules, with axile or rarely parietal placentation, the ovules pendulous, 3-8 per locule. Fruit a fleshy berry, with few ovate seeds. A genus of about 200 species, the majority of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat in the United States

Exotic bush honeysuckles are relatively shade-intolerant and most often occur in forest edge, abandoned field, pasture, roadsides and other open, upland habitats. Woodlands, especially those that have been grazed or otherwise disturbed, may also be invaded by exotic bush honeysuckles. Morrow's honeysuckle and pretty honeysuckle have the greatest habitat breadth and are capable of invading bogs, fens, lakeshores, sandplains and other uncommon habitat types.

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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Aleurodiscus botryosus grows on dead stem (woody) of Lonicera

Foodplant / gall
larva of Alucita hexadactyla causes gall of inflorescence of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, clypeate perithecium of Amphisphaerella xylostei is saprobic on dead branch of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 8-5

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta vulgaris var. vulgaris causes spots on live leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
effuse colony of Camposporium dematiaceous anamorph of Camposporium cambrense is saprobic on rotten wood of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pycnidium of Coleophoma coelomycetous anamorph of Coleophoma empetri is saprobic on dead leaf of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 10-4

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnidium of Colletotrichella coelomycetous anamorph of Colletotrichella periclymeni causes spots on live leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / pathogen
Cucumber Mosaic virus infects and damages live leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
somewhat scattered, minute, totally immersed, pore finally emerging stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora lonicerae is saprobic on dead, locally brownish red twig of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 5

Foodplant / gall
larva of Dasineura periclymeni causes gall of leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, often loosely grouped perithecium of Diaporthe eres is saprobic on wood of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Diaporthe pardalota is saprobic on attached, dead twig of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 1-8
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent, elongately clustered pycnidium of Diplodia coelomycetous anamorph of Diplodia lonicerae is saprobic on dead branch (thin) of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 2-6

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes xylostei causes gall of leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous conidial anamorph of Erysiphe lonicerae parasitises live leaf of Lonicera
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Gloniopsis praelonga is saprobic on dead stem of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / sap sucker
Hyadaphis foeniculi sucks sap of Lonicera
Remarks: season: spring

Foodplant / sap sucker
hypophyllous Hyadaphis passrinii sucks sap of live leaf of Lonicera
Remarks: season: spring, summer
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
hysterothecium of Hysterographium mori is saprobic on dead branch of Lonicera

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, subcuticular conidioma of Kabatia coelomycetous anamorph of Kabatia periclymeni causes spots on fading leaf of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Lachnum barbatum is saprobic on dead stem of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
somewhat short-stalked apothecium of Lachnum corticale is saprobic on dead stem of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 3-12

Foodplant / parasite
mycelium of Lasiobotrys lonicerae parasitises live leaf of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 8-10

Foodplant / gall
larva of Macrolabis lonicerae causes gall of leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Aposphaeria coelomycetous anamorph of Melanomma fuscidulum is saprobic on fallen, dead branch of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 3-5

Foodplant / saprobe
superficial, often in very large clusters pseudothecium of Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is saprobic on dry, hard, decorticate stem of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 9-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed or erumpent perithecium of Melomastia mastoidea is saprobic on dead branch of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
cyphelloid basidiocarp of Merismodes bresadolae is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed twig of Lonicera

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous, immersed pseudothecium of Mycosphaerella clymenia causes spots on live leaf of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 8-10

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Niptera ramincola is saprobic on dead wood of Lonicera

Foodplant / sap sucker
Parthenolecanium corni sucks sap of live shoot of Lonicera

Foodplant / parasite
Phaeoramularia anamorph of Phaeoramularia antipus parasitises Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma minutula is saprobic on dead branch (small) of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 2-7

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered to gregarious pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis lonicerae is saprobic on old, dead stem of Lonicera

Foodplant / gall
Prociphilus xylostei causes gall of inflorescence of Lonicera

Foodplant / spot causer
pycnium of Puccinia festucae causes spots on live leaf of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Rhagoletis cerasi feeds within fruit of Lonicera

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria lonicerae feeds on Lonicera

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo livida grazes on leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / open feeder
nocturnal larva of Tenthredo vespa grazes on leaf of Lonicera

Plant / resting place / within
larva of Thrips brevicornis may be found in live flower of Lonicera
Remarks: season: 5-7

Foodplant / saprobe
apothecium of Unguiculella robergei is saprobic on dead stem of Lonicera

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of spermogone of Valsa olivacea is saprobic on dead, dry branch of Lonicera

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Zaraea aenea grazes on leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Zaraea fasciata grazes on leaf of Lonicera

Foodplant / open feeder
larva of Zaraea lonicerae grazes on leaf of Lonicera
Other: major host/prey

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Biology and Spread

Open-grown exotic bush honeysuckles fruit prolifically and are highly attractive to birds. In the eastern United States, over twenty species of birds feed on the persistent fruits and widely disseminate seeds across the landscape. In established populations, vegetative sprouting also aids in the persistence of these exotic shrubs.

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Evolution and Systematics

Functional Adaptations

Functional adaptation

Stem used for climbing: honeysuckle
 

The stems of honeysuckles help them climb by winding around the thicker stems of plants competing for the same light.

       
  "Almost every element of plant anatomy, it seems, can be turned into some kind of climbing device. The cheese plant climbs with its roots, sending them out from its nodes, the places on its stem from which leaves normally spring, and wrapping them around the trunk of its host. European ivy sprouts roots all along the underside of its stems. They are so thin that they can cling to any tiny rugosity. Honeysuckle uses its own stem, winding it around the thicker stem of others. The glory lilies of tropical Africa and Asia have elongated the tips of their leaves into little mobile wires with which they hook themselves on to any support they can find." (Attenborough 1995:161)
  Learn more about this functional adaptation.
  • Attenborough, D. 1995. The Private Life of Plants: A Natural History of Plant Behavior. London: BBC Books. 320 p.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:327Public Records:159
Specimens with Sequences:310Public Species:30
Specimens with Barcodes:304Public BINs:0
Species:56         
Species With Barcodes:53         
          
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Barcode data

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Lonicera

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Ecological Threat in the United States

Exotic bush honeysuckles can rapidly invade and overtake a site, forming a dense shrub layer that crowds and shades out native plant species. They alter habitats by decreasing light availability, by depleting soil moisture and nutrients, and possibly by releasing toxic chemicals that prevent other plant species from growing in the vicinity. Exotic bush honeysuckles may compete with native bush honeysuckles for pollinators, resulting in reduced seed set for native species. In addition, the fruits of exotic bush honeysuckles, while abundant and rich in carbohydrates, do not offer migrating birds the high-fat, nutrient-rich food sources needed for long flights, that are supplied by native plant species.

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Wikipedia

Honeysuckle

For other uses, see Honeysuckle (disambiguation).

Honeysuckles (Lonicera, /lɒˈnɪsərə/;[1] syn. Caprifolium Mill.) are arching shrubs or twining vines in the family Caprifoliaceae, native to the Northern Hemisphere. There are approximately 180 species of honeysuckle, 100 of which occur in China while about 20 native species occur in Europe, India and, North America each. Widely known species include Lonicera periclymenum (honeysuckle or woodbine), Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle, white honeysuckle, or Chinese honeysuckle) and Lonicera sempervirens (coral honeysuckle, trumpet honeysuckle, or woodbine honeysuckle). Hummingbirds are attracted to the flowers on some of these plants, especially L. sempervirens and L. ciliosa (orange honeysuckle). The name Lonicera stems from Adam Lonicer, a Renaissance botanist.

Description[edit]

Most species of Lonicera are hardy twining climbers, with a large minority of shrubby habit; a handful of species (including Lonicera hildebrandiana from the Himalayan foothills and L. etrusca from the Mediterranean) are tender and can only be grown outside in subtropical zones. The leaves are opposite, simple oval, 1–10 cm long; most are deciduous but some are evergreen. Many of the species have sweetly-scented, bilaterally symmetrical flowers that produce a sweet, edible nectar, and most flowers are borne in clusters of two (leading to the common name of "twinberry" for certain North American species). Both shrubby and vining sorts have strongly fibrous stems which have been used for binding and textiles. The fruit is a red, blue or black spherical or elongated berry containing several seeds; in most species the berries are mildly poisonous, but in a few (notably Lonicera caerulea) they are edible and grown for home use and commerce. Most honeysuckle berries are attractive to wildlife, which has led to species such as L. japonica and L. maackii spreading invasively outside of their home ranges. Many species of Lonicera are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see a list of Lepidoptera that feed on honeysuckles.

Invasive species[edit]

Several species of honeysuckle have become invasive when introduced outside their native range, particularly in New Zealand and the United States. Invasive species include L. japonica, L. maackii, L. morrowii, and L. tatarica.

Honeysuckle

Cultivation[edit]

Honeysuckles are valued as garden plants, for their ability to cover unsightly walls and outbuildings, their profuse tubular flowers in summer, and the intense fragrance of many varieties. The hardy climbing types need their roots in shade, and their flowering tops in sunlight or very light shade. Varieties need to be chosen with care, as they can become substantial.[2]

The following hybrids have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-

  • L. similis var. delavayi[3]
  • L. × purpusii 'Winter Beauty'[4]
  • L. × tellmanniana[5]

Other cultivars are dealt with under their species names.

Selected species[edit]

Honeysuckle Lonicera japonica
L. ciliosa
L. sempervirens
L.caprifolium, Chèvrefeuille

Lonicera acuminata
Lonicera albiflora (white honeysuckle)
Lonicera alpigena (Alpine Honeysuckle)
Lonicera altmannii
Lonicera angustifolia
Lonicera anisocalyx
Lonicera arborea
Lonicera arizonica (Arizona honeysuckle)
Lonicera biflora
Lonicera bournei
Lonicera brevisepala
Lonicera buchananii
Lonicera buddleioides
Lonicera caerulea (blue-berried honeysuckle)
Lonicera calcarata
Lonicera calvescens
Lonicera canadensis (American fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera caprifolium (goat-leaf honeysuckle, perfoliate honeysuckle. Type species)
Lonicera carnosifolis
Lonicera cerviculata
Lonicera chrysantha (Chrysantha honeysuckle)
Lonicera ciliosa (orange honeysuckle)
Lonicera ciliosissima
Lonicera cinerea
Lonicera codonantha
Lonicera confusa
Lonicera conjugialis (purpleflower honeysuckle)
Lonicera crassifolia
Lonicera cyanocarpa
Lonicera dasystyla (Tonkinese honeysuckle)
Lonicera dioica - (limber honeysuckle)
Lonicera elisae
Lonicera etrusca (Etruscan honeysuckle)
Lonicera fargesii
Lonicera ferdinandii
Lonicera ferruginea
Lonicera flava (yellow honeysuckle)
Lonicera fragilis
Lonicera fragrantissima (winter honeysuckle)
Lonicera fulvotomentosa
Lonicera glutinosa
Lonicera graebneri
Lonicera gynochlamydea
Lonicera × heckrottii (Golden Flame honeysuckle)
Lonicera hellenica (Greek honeysuckle)
Lonicera hemsleyana
Lonicera heterophylla
Lonicera hildebrandiana (giant Burmese honeysuckle)
Lonicera hirsuta (hairy honeysuckle)
Lonicera hispida
Lonicera hispidula (pink honeysuckle)
Lonicera humilis
Lonicera hypoglauca
Lonicera hypoleuca
Lonicera implexa
Lonicera inconspicua
Lonicera inodora
Lonicera interrupta (Chaparral honeysuckle)
Lonicera involucrata (bearberry honeysuckle)
Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
Lonicera jilongensis
Lonicera kansuensis
Lonicera kawakamii
Lonicera korolkowii (blueleaf honeysuckle)
Lonicera lanceolata
Lonicera ligustrina
Lonicera litangensis
Lonicera longiflora
Lonicera longituba
Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)
Lonicera macrantha
Lonicera macranthoides
Lonicera maximowiczii
Lonicera microphylla
Lonicera minuta
Lonicera minutifolia
Lonicera modesta
Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle)
Lonicera mucronata
Lonicera myrtillus
Lonicera nervosa
Lonicera nigra (black-berried honeysuckle)
Lonicera nitida (boxleaf honeysuckle)
Lonicera nubium
Lonicera nummulariifolia
Lonicera oblata
Lonicera oblongifolia (swamp fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera oiwakensis
Lonicera oreodoxa
Lonicera orientalis
Lonicera pampaninii
Lonicera paradoxa
Lonicera periclymenum (honeysuckle, woodbine)
Lonicera pileata (privet honeysuckle)
Lonicera pilosa (Mexican honeysuckle)
Lonicera praeflorens
Lonicera prostrata
Lonicera pyrenaica
Lonicera reticulata (grape honeysuckle)
Lonicera retusa
Lonicera rhytidophylla
Lonicera rupicola
Lonicera ruprechtiana (Manchurian honeysuckle)
Lonicera saccata
Lonicera schneideriana
Lonicera semenovii
Lonicera sempervirens (trumpet honeysuckle)
Lonicera serreana
Lonicera setifera
Lonicera similis
Lonicera spinosa
Lonicera splendida (evergreen honeysuckle)
Lonicera standishii (Standish's honeysuckle)
Lonicera stephanocarpa
Lonicera subaequalis
Lonicera subhispida
Lonicera sublabiata
Lonicera subspicata (southern honeysuckle)
Lonicera szechuanica
Lonicera taipeiensis
Lonicera tangutica
Lonicera tatarica (Tatarian honeysuckle)
Lonicera tatarinowii
Lonicera tomentella
Lonicera tragophylla
Lonicera tricalysioides
Lonicera trichogyne
Lonicera trichosantha
Lonicera trichosepala
Lonicera tubuliflora
Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle)
Lonicera villosa (mountain fly honeysuckle)
Lonicera virgultorum
Lonicera webbiana
Lonicera xylosteum (fly woodbine)
Lonicera yunnanensis

Formerly placed here[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera similis var. delavayi". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera x purpusii 'Winter Beauty'". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Lonicera x tellmannia". Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Lonicera". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 
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