Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 A small brittle star with very long arms which lives buried in muddy sand. Disc may be up to 11 mm in diameter with upper and underside surfaces covered in small smooth scales. Each arm segment has between 4-6 short spines on each side, none flattened or widened at the tip and two large tentacle scales. Colour in life reddish or greyish-brown, often somewhat mottled.Other Amphiura species are similar. Mixed populations of Amphiura chiajei and Amphiura filiformis are common.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

A small brittle star with very long arms which lives buried in muddy sand. Dorsal and ventral surfaces of the disc are covered with small scales. There are 4-6 conical arm spines, none widened or flattened at the tips and 2 large tentacle scales. Disc 9-10mm. arms 9x disc diameter. Other Amphiura species are similar. Mixed populations of this species and Amphiura filiformis are common.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

In depths of 50 to more than 200 m, burrowing in sand or muddy sand, all round the British Isles, but rare in the English Channel.
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Reported from all round the British Isles mostly below 10 metres but there is some doubt over records from the south.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 490 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 331 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 454
  Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 18.747
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.267 - 12.863
  Salinity (PPS): 32.851 - 39.023
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.043 - 6.605
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.031 - 0.858
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.450 - 14.336

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 454

Temperature range (°C): 6.506 - 18.747

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.267 - 12.863

Salinity (PPS): 32.851 - 39.023

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.043 - 6.605

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.031 - 0.858

Silicate (umol/l): 1.450 - 14.336
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 Amphiura chiajei lives partially buried in mud and muddy sand.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This species lives buried in muddy sand and extends its arms across the surface of the substratum, feeding on deposited material.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding

Ophiopluteus larva. Autumn.
translation missing: en.license_cc_by_4_0

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amphiura chiajei

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Amphiura chiajei

Amphiura chiajei is a species of brittle star belonging to the family Amphiuridae. It is found in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean and adjoining seas to a depth of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). It digs itself into the soft sediment of the seabed and raises its arms into the water above to suspension feed on plankton. It was first described by the British naturalist Edward Forbes in 1843.

Description[edit]

Amphiura chiajei has a central disc and five slender arms and is pinkish or greyish-brown. The disc is up to 11 mm (0.4 in) in diameter and the arms up to 88 mm (3 in) long. The dorsal surface of the disc is covered with scales, larger in the middle and smaller towards the margin. There are a pair of separate radial shields near the attachment of each of the arms. The arms are elongated and are composed of many segments with joints between them, each segment bearing four to six pairs of conical spines.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Amphiura chiajei is found in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.[1] Its range extends from western Norway to the Azores and the west coast of North Africa.[3] It is found on the seabed on sand or muddy sand at depths down to about 1,000 metres (3,300 ft).[2]

Ecology[edit]

Amphiura chiajei buries itself in the sediment with the disc at a depth of about 5 centimetres (2.0 in). It extends one or two arms above the sediment to gather food particles which are then transferred along its arm to its mouth. It is often found in the same locations as the heart urchin Brissopsis lyrifera, and where this happens it grows more slowly than it does elsewhere. This is thought to be due to the fact that the urchin churns up the sediment excessively.[4]

Amphiura chiajei becomes sexually mature at about four years of age and may live for ten years. The gonads grow in size over the winter and spring and broadcast spawning takes place in late summer and early autumn. The larvae drift with the current and settle on the seabed and undergo metamorphosis at around eight days. This short larval period means that their potential to disperse is limited. In a population off the coast of Northumberland during the period 1958 to 1964, all the individuals were large and there was no sign of juveniles. Then in 1965 a large number of young individuals joined the population, demonstrating that episodic recruitment is a feature of this brittle star.[5]

In Loch Eil and Loch Linnhe, Scotland this species has become much more common in the last few decades of the 20th century. In the 1960s there was an average of about 50 individuals per square metre in suitable habitats, in the 1970s this had increased to over 300 per square metre. It is suggested that this build up in numbers was mainly due to the discharge of effluent from pulp mills.[6] An increase in nutrients led to an increase in the number of plankton and, as suspension feeders, the brittle stars benefited from the increased food supply. The removal of organic particles by the brittle stars may have reduced the consequences of increased eutrophication for other organisms.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Stöhr, Sabine (2014). S. Stöhr & T. O'Hara, ed. "Amphiura chiajei Forbes, 1843". World Ophiuroidea database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-11-27. 
  2. ^ a b de Kluijver, M. J.; Ingalsuo, S. S. "Amphiura chiajei". Macrobenthos of the North Sea - Echinodermata. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2014-11-27. 
  3. ^ "Amphiura chiajei: Habitat preferences and distribution". MarLIN. Retrieved 2014-11-27. 
  4. ^ "Amphiura chiajei: General biology". MarLIN. Retrieved 2014-11-27. 
  5. ^ "Amphiura chiajei: Reproduction and longevity". MarLIN. Retrieved 2014-11-27. 
  6. ^ a b Uthicke, Sven; Schaffelke, Britta; Byrne, Maria (2009). "A boom–bust phylum? Ecological and evolutionary consequences of density variations in echinoderms". Ecological monographs 79: 324. doi:10.1890/07-2136.1. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!