Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual, biennial or perennial herbs or shrubs. Leaves simple and palmately lobed or digitately compound. Flowers usually solitary and axillary, but often forming terminal inflorescences by reduction of the upper leaves, yellow with a dark centre or red, pink, purplish or white. Epicalyx of 5-20 bracts, rarely 0. Calyx with 5 lobes or (rarely) 5-10 teeth. Ovary 4-5-locular; each loculus with 3-many ovules. Style 5-branched. Fruit a loculicidally dehiscent capsule.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 6 specimens in 4 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Associations

Foodplant / sap sucker
hypophyllous Coccus hesperidum sucks sap of live leaf (near veins) of Hibiscus
Remarks: season: 1-12

Foodplant / sap sucker
Myzus persicae sucks sap of Hibiscus

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus HE.5

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus HE.2

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus HE.1

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hibiscus HE.4

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records: 278
Specimens with Sequences: 323
Specimens with Barcodes: 212
Species: 66
Species With Barcodes: 60
Public Records: 27
Public Species: 16
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Barcode data

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Wikipedia

Hibiscus

For other uses, see Hibiscus (disambiguation).

Hibiscus (/hɨˈbɪskəs/[2] or /hˈbɪskəs/[3]) is a genus of flowering plants in the mallow family, Malvaceae. It is quite large, containing several hundred species that are native to warm-temperate, subtropical and tropical regions throughout the world. Member species are often noted for their showy flowers and are commonly known simply as hibiscus, or less widely known as rose mallow. The genus includes both annual and perennial herbaceous plants, as well as woody shrubs and small trees. The generic name is derived from the Greek word ἱβίσκος (hibískos), which was the name Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. 40–90) gave to Althaea officinalis.[4]

Description[edit]

The leaves are alternate, ovate to lanceolate, often with a toothed or lobed margin. The flowers are large, conspicuous, trumpet-shaped, with five or more petals, color from white to pink, red, orange, purple or yellow, and from 4–18 cm broad. Flower color in certain species, such as H. mutabilis and H. tiliaceus, changes with age.[5] The fruit is a dry five-lobed capsule, containing several seeds in each lobe, which are released when the capsule dehisces (splits open) at maturity. It is of red and white colours. It is an example of complete flowers.

Uses[edit]

A white Hibiscus arnottianus in Hawaii.

Symbolism and culture[edit]

Hibiscus species represent nations: Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea, and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is the national flower of Malaysia. The hibiscus is the national flower of the Haiti. The red hibiscus is the flower of the Hindu goddess Kali, and appears frequently in depictions of her in the art of Bengal, India, often with the goddess and the flower merging in form. The hibiscus is used as an offering to goddess Kali and Lord Ganesha in Hindu worship.

In the Philippines, the gumamela (local name for hibiscus) is used by children as part of a bubble-making pastime. The flowers and leaves are crushed until the sticky juices come out. Hollow papaya stalks are then dipped into this and used as straws for blowing bubbles.

The hibiscus flower is traditionally worn by Tahitian and Hawaiian girls. If the flower is worn behind the left ear, the woman is married or in a relationship. If the flower is worn on the right, she is single or openly available for a relationship. The hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower.

Nigerian author Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie named her first novel Purple Hibiscus after the delicate flower.

The bark of the hibiscus contains strong bast fibres that can be obtained by letting the stripped bark set in the sea to let the organic material rot away.

Landscaping[edit]

Many species are grown for their showy flowers or used as landscape shrubs, and are used to attract butterflies, bees, and hummingbirds.[6]

Paper[edit]

One species of Hibiscus, known as kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus), is extensively used in paper-making.

Beverage[edit]

Main article: Hibiscus tea

The tea made of hibiscus flowers is known by many names in many countries around the world and is served both hot and cold. The beverage is well known for its color, tanginess and flavor.

It is known as bissap in West Africa, agua de jamaica in Mexico and Honduras (the flower being flor de jamaica) and gudhal (गुड़हल) in India. Some refer to it as roselle, a common name for the hibiscus flower. In Jamaica, Trinidad and many other islands in the Caribbean, the drink is known as sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa; not to be confused with Rumex acetosa, a species sharing the common name sorrel). In Ghana, the drink is known as soobolo in one of the local languages.

Roselle is typically boiled in an enamel-coated large stock pot as most West Indians believe the metal from aluminum, steel or copper pots will destroy the natural minerals and vitamins.[citation needed]

In Cambodia, a cold beverage can be prepared by first steeping the petals in hot water until the colors are leached from the petals, then adding lime juice (which turns the beverage from dark brown/red to a bright red), sweeteners (sugar/honey) and finally cold water/ice cubes.

In Egypt,[citation needed] Sudan and the Middle East, hibiscus tea is known as karkadé (كركديه) and is served as both a hot and a cold drink.

Food[edit]

Dried hibiscus is edible, and it is often a delicacy in Mexico. It can also be candied and used as a garnish.[7]

The roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is used as a vegetable.

Certain species of hibiscus are also beginning to be used more widely as a natural source of food coloring (E163),[citation needed] and replacement of Red #3 / E127.[citation needed]

Hibiscus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidopteran species, including Chionodes hibiscella, Hypercompe hambletoni, the nutmeg moth, and the turnip moth.

Health benefits[edit]

Hibiscus stigma

The tea is popular as a natural diuretic; it contains vitamin C and minerals, and is used traditionally as a mild medicine.

A 2008 USDA study shows consuming hibiscus tea lowers blood pressure in a group of prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults. Three cups of tea daily resulted in an average drop of 8.1 mmHg in their systolic blood pressure, compared to a 1.3 mmHg drop in the volunteers who drank the placebo beverage. Study participants with higher blood pressure readings (129 or above) had a greater response to hibiscus tea: their systolic blood pressure went down by 13.2 mmHg. These data support the idea that drinking hibiscus tea in an amount readily incorporated into the diet may play a role in controlling blood pressure, although more research is required.[8]

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis has a number of medical uses in Chinese herbology.[9] Lokapure s.g.et al. their research indicates some potential in cosmetic skin care; for example, an extract from the flowers of Hibiscus rosa- sinensis has been shown to function as an anti-solar agent by absorbing ultraviolet radiation.[10]

In the Indian traditional system of medicine, Ayurveda, hibiscus, especially white hibiscus and red hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), is considered to have medicinal properties. The roots are used to make various concoctions believed to cure ailments such as cough, hair loss or hair greying. As a hair treatment, the flowers are boiled in oil along with other spices to make a medicated hair oil. The leaves and flowers are ground into a fine paste with a little water, and the resulting lathery paste is used as a shampoo plus conditioner.

Hibiscus tea also contains bioflavenoids, which are believed to help prevent an increase in LDL cholesterol, which can increase the buildup of plaque in the arteries.[11]

Species[edit]

In temperate zones, probably the most commonly grown ornamental species is Hibiscus syriacus, the common garden hibiscus, also known in some areas as the "Rose of Althea" or "Rose of Sharon" (but not to be confused with the unrelated Hypericum calycinum, also called "Rose of Sharon"). In tropical and subtropical areas, the Chinese hibiscus (H. rosa-sinensis), with its many showy hybrids, is the most popular hibiscus.

Several hundred species are known, including:

Formerly placed here[edit]

Photos[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus: Hibiscus L". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-10-05. Retrieved 2010-02-16. 
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  3. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
  4. ^ Lawton, Barbara Perry (2004). Hibiscus: Hardy and Tropical Plants for the Garden. Timber Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-88192-654-5. 
  5. ^ Lee, David Webster (2007). Nature's Palette: the Science of Plant Color. University of Chicago Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-226-47052-8. 
  6. ^ Floridata: Plants That Attract Butterflies
  7. ^ Nation's Restaurant News: Hibiscus blossoms as a food, drink ingredient
  8. ^ Study Shows Consuming Hibiscus Tea Lowers Blood Pressure (accessed 05/10/2009)
  9. ^ Plants for a Future: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. (accessed 07/05/2009)
  10. ^ Nevade Sidram A., Sachin G. Lokapure and N.V. Kalyane. 2011. Study on anti-solar activity of ehanolic extract of flower of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 4(3): 472–473.
  11. ^ http://www.poundoftea.com/benefits-of-hibiscus-flower-tea/
  12. ^ Bussmann, R. W., et al. (2006). Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2 22.
  13. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Hibiscus". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2011-02-10. 
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Hawaiian hibiscus

Hawaiian hibiscus are the seven known species of hibiscus regarded as native to Hawaiʻi. The yellow hibiscus is Hawaii's state flower. Although tourists regularly associate the hibiscus flower with their experiences visiting the US state of Hawaiʻi, and the plant family Malvaceae includes a relatively large number of species that are native to the Hawaiian Islands, those flowers presented to or regularly observed by tourists are generally not the native hibiscus flowers. Most commonly grown as ornamental plants in the Islands are the Chinese hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) and its numerous hybrids.

The native plants in the genus Hibiscus in Hawaiʻi are thought to have derived from four independent colonization events: two for the five endemic species (four closely related species plus the yellow-flowered species) and one each for the two indigenous species.[1]

Contents

Native species[edit]

The native hibiscus (genus Hibiscus) found in Hawaiʻi are:

  • Hibiscus arnottianus A. Graykokiʻo keʻokeʻo ("kokiʻo that is white like the shine of silver") is an endemic species of hibiscus with white flowers. Three subspecies are recognized: H. arnottianus arnottianus found in the Waiʻanae Range of western Oʻahu; H. a. immaculatus which is very rare (listed as endangered) on Molokaʻi; and H. a. punaluuensis from the Koʻolau Range on Oʻahu. Perhaps only a dozen plants of H. a. immaculatus exist in nature in mesic and wet forests.[2] This species is closely related to H. waimeae, and the two are among the very few members of the genus with fragrant flowers. It is sometimes planted as an ornamental or crossed with H. rosa-sinensis. In the Hawaiian language, the white hibiscus is known as the pua aloalo.[3]
  • Hibiscus brackenridgei A. Graymaʻo hau hele ("hau most similar to maʻo") is a tall shrub (up to 10 m or 33 ft) with bright yellow flowers, closely related to the widespread H. divaricatus. Two subspecies are recognized: H. b. brackenridgei, a sprawling shrub to an erect tree found in dry forests and low shrublands at elevations of 400–2,600 ft (120–790 m) above sea level on Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Maui, and Hawaiʻi;[4] and H. b. mokuleianus, a tree from dry habitats on Kauaʻi and the Waiʻanae Range on Oʻahu. This species is listed as an endangered species by the USFWS. The yellow flower of this species was made the official state flower of Hawaiʻi on 6 June 1988,[5] and although endangered in its natural habitats, has become a moderately popular ornamental in Hawaiian yards.
  • Hibiscus clayi O.Deg. & I.Deg. is an endemic shrub or small tree with bright red flowers, generally similar to H. kokio, and found in nature on Kauaʻi in dry forests. It is listed as endangered by USFWS.
  • Hibiscus furcellatus Desr. is a pink-flowered hibiscus considered an indigenous species, typically found in low and marshy areas of the Caribbean, Florida, Central and South America, and Hawaiʻi, where it is known as ʻakiohala, ʻakiahala, hau hele, and hau hele wai ("entirely puce hau").
  • Hibiscus kokio Hillebr., kokiʻo or kokiʻo ʻula ("red kokiʻo") is a shrub or small tree (3–7 m or 9.8–23 ft) with red to orangish (or rarely yellow) flowers. This endemic species is not officially listed, but considered rare in nature. Two subspecies are recognized: H. kokio kokio found in dry to wet forests on Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Maui, and possibly Hawaiʻi at elevations of 70–800 m (230–2,600 ft);[6] and H. k. saintjohnianus from northwestern Kauaʻi at elevations of 150–890 m (490–2,920 ft).[7]
  • Hibiscus tiliaceus L., hau, is a spreading shrub or tree common to the tropics and subtropics, especially in coastal areas. This species is possibly indigenous to Hawaiʻi, but may have been introduced by the early Polynesians.
  • Hibiscus waimeae A.Heller, kokiʻo keʻokeʻo or kokiʻo kea ("kokiʻo that is white as snow"), is a Hawaiian endemic, gray-barked tree, 6–10 m (20–33 ft) tall, with white flowers that fade to pink in the afternoon. Two subspecies are recognized: H. waimeae hannerae (rare and listed as endangered) found in northwestern valleys of Kauaʻi, and H. w. waimeae occurring in the Waimea Canyon and some western to southern valleys on Kauaʻi. This species closely resembles H. arnottianus in a number of characteristics.

Other Malvaceae[edit]

In addition to the species of Hibiscus listed above, flowers of several other related Hawaiian plants of the family Malvaceae resemble Hibiscus flowers, although are generally smaller. The endemic genus, Hibiscadelphus, comprises seven species described from Hawaiʻi. Three of these are now thought to be extinct and the remaining four are listed as critically endangered or extinct in the wild. Another endemic genus, Kokia, comprises four species of trees. All but one (K. kauaiensis) are listed as either extinct or nearly extinct in the wild.

Three endemic species of the pantropical genus, Abutilon occur in Hawaiʻi: A. eremitopetalum, A. menziesii, and A. sandwicense; all are listed as endangered. Cotton plants (Gossypium spp.), whose bright yellow flowers are certainly hibiscus-like, include one endemic: G. tomentosum, uncommon but found in dry places on all the main islands except Hawaiʻi. The widespread milo (Thespesia populnea) is an indigenous tree with yellow and maroon flowers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wagner,, W.L.; Herbst, D.R.; Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the flowering plants of Hawai'i (Revised ed.). Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2166-1. 
  2. ^ Barboza, Rick (2003-01-03). "Kokiʻo Keʻo Keʻo". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. 
  3. ^ Little Jr., Elbert L.; Roger G. Skolmen (1989). Kokiʻo keʻokeʻo, native white hibiscus (PDF). United States Forest Service. 
  4. ^ "Hibiscus brackenridgei subsp. brackenridgei". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  5. ^ "Hawaii State Flower". NETSTATE.COM. 2009-09-28. Retrieved 2009-10-30. 
  6. ^ "Hibiscus kokio subsp. kokio". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
  7. ^ "Hibiscus kokio subsp. saintjohnianus". Meet the Plants. National Tropical Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-03-11. 
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