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BiologyFound in shallow rocky runs and riffles of clear rivers, at an altitude of 900-1200 m above sea level, and depths from 0.2 to 0.4 m (Ref. 52116). Feeds on invertebrates such as mayfly nymphs and caddis fly, blackfly or midge larvae grazed from rocks. Oviparous (Ref. 205). Breeds in summer (Ref. 7248). Distribution in southern Africa is restricted and may be threatened by alteration of its habitat (Ref. 52116).