Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Some species, at least, of Galiteuthis reach a large size of 660 mm ML (Nesis, 1982, suggests that they may reach a size of 2.7 m ML). Species are easily recognized by the hooks on the tentacular clubs while lacking hooks on the arms, and the long, slender, terminal fins.

Brief diagnosis:

A taoniin ...

  • with club armature mostly in two series and consisting of large hooks.
  • with long, lanceolate, terminal fins.

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Comprehensive Description

Description

Galiteuthis Joubin, 1898

 

 

Galiteuthis Joubin, 1898: 279. Type species, by monotypy: Galiteuthis armata Joubin, 1898: 279. Type specimen deposited, Museum of Natural History, Nice. Examined; poor, very fragile condition.

 

Taonidium Pfeffer, 1900: 192. Type species, by monotypy: Taonius suhmi Hoyle, 1886: 192. Type specimen deposited, British Museum (Nat. Hist.), BM 90.1.24.19. Single remaining syntype ex­amined (CHALLENGER Sta. 159); poor condition.

 

Crystalloteuthis Chun, 1906: 85. Type species, by monotypy: Crystalloteuthis glacialis Chun, 1906: 85. Type specimen deposited, Zoological Museum, Humboldt University, Berlin. Not examined.

 

Phasmatoteuthion Pfeffer, 1912: 728. Type species, by monotypy: Taonius richardi Joubin, 1895: 46. Type specimen deposited, Institute of Oceanography Museum, Monaco. Examined; poor condition.

 

Cristalloteuthis Naef, 1921: 49. Erroneus spelling of Crystalloteuthis Chun, 1906.

 

 

Definition.—Moderately large cranchiids; mantle long, slender, broadest in anterior half, tapering posteriorly to slender point; mantle wall thin, muscular, and, in subadults and adults may or may not bear numerous cartilaginous tubercles over outer surface; tubercles may or may not be present at anterior end of roughly comma-shaped funnel-mantle fusion cartilages and of broad, triangular nuchal fusion cartilage; fins terminal, medium to long, lanceolate, becoming attenuate to varying degrees posteriorly and extending as low delicate fringe to end of gladius, anterior lobes lacking (in larva, except for very early stage, fins with intervening stout gladial spine); except for anteriormost margin, anterior fin in­sertions on posterolateral margins of lanceola; medium-sized funnel extends approximately to mideye level; dorsal pad of funnel organ roughly inverted U-shaped with three large, slightly flattened papillae (one on each lateral arm and ­one centered on mid-anterior portion); small to medium-sized, oval ventral pads; funnel valve absent; head dominated by large, protruding, anterolaterally oriented eyes; ventral surface of eyes with two photophores (large, cresent-shaped posterior photophore with small, crescent-shaped or nearly round anterior pho­tophore within its concavity) (in larva, head with short to medium arm pillar; arms very short of approximate coequal length; eyes oval without ventral ros­trum, on short to medium stalks); olfactory organ small, cup-shaped, short-stalked; arms short, muscular with formula IV ≈ III > II > I in adult females, IV = III > II > I or I > II > IV ≈ III in adult males (IV > III > II > I in juveniles); well developed trabeculate protective membranes more expanded on ventral margins of all arms; low aboral keel present on I–III, lateral keel on IV; moderately large suckers largest on midportions of all arms; rings smooth or with flat, square, rounded or pointed teeth on distal and lateral margins; in large males, terminal portions of I and II may be secondarily modified (two rows of abruptly reduced, small suckers) or, I may become very elongate and II less so; in near-mature and mature females, brachial end-organs absent; short to medium length tentacles muscular with two rows of carpal suckers set in pairs on distal two-thirds to three-quarters of stalk; carpal cluster present; short, slightly expanded club with four to eight pairs of median suckers on manus modified with growth into large, hooded hooks (in juvenile, forming hooks appear at about 35-60 mm ML); suckers of marginal rows greatly reduced or lost; moderately developed, weakly trabeculate protective membrane on both margins; small dorsal keel present or absent; digestive gland stout, spindle-shaped; digestive duct appendages confined to posterodorsal surface of digestive gland or may extend entire length of long digestive duct; gladius with long, slender rachis bordered on approximate distal half by long, narrow vanes that roll inward posteriorly, overlap and, with or without fusing, extend into hollow, needle-like conus.

 

 

Distribution.—Circumglobal Antarctic to subarctic waters. Subsurface waters to approximately 1,500 m.”

 

 

(Voss, 1980: 394-392)

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Source: Antarctic Invertebrates Website (NMNH)

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Characteristics

  1. Tentacles
    1. Tentacular clubs with large hooks.*
    2. Two series of suckers and pads on distal 2/3 to 3/4 of tentacular stalk.

      Figure. Oral view of tentacular club of G. phyllura, 359 mm ML. Drawing from Young (1972).

  2. Funnel
    1. Funnel valve absent.
    2. Funnel organ: Dorsal pad with three flattened papillae.

  3. Mantle
    1. Tubercles present or absent at the funnel-mantle fusion depending on species.

  4. Fins
    1. Fins lanceolate, terminal (see title illustration); anterior insertion on shell sac.

  5. Photophores
    1. Two ocular photophores: Medial photophore with crescent-shaped photogenetic region; Lateral photophore with short, slightly curved photogenetic region that lies within the concavity of the first.
    2. Arm tip photophores absent.

      Figure. Lateral (left) and ventral (right) views of ocular photophores of G. glacialis, 333 mm ML. Drawing from Voss (1980, p. 393).

*Unusual within family, shared only with Mesonychoteuthis (but see condition in Taonius).

Comments

The distinctive hooks of the tentacular clubs first appear at 35-60 mm ML (Voss, et al., 1992). Characteristics are from Voss (1980).

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Distribution

Members of this genus are found circumglobally in all oceans except the Arctic Ocean (Nesis, 1982).

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 450 specimens in 6 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 431 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 5844
  Temperature range (°C): -1.576 - 24.115
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.302 - 44.916
  Salinity (PPS): 33.221 - 38.973
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.303 - 8.036
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.107 - 3.500
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.352 - 175.179

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 5844

Temperature range (°C): -1.576 - 24.115

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.302 - 44.916

Salinity (PPS): 33.221 - 38.973

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.303 - 8.036

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.107 - 3.500

Silicate (umol/l): 1.352 - 175.179
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 5 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 108 - 2226
  Temperature range (°C): 1.324 - 3.333
  Nitrate (umol/L): 32.128 - 41.949
  Salinity (PPS): 33.620 - 34.584
  Oxygen (ml/l): 0.584 - 4.040
  Phosphate (umol/l): 2.518 - 3.280
  Silicate (umol/l): 79.456 - 192.813

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 108 - 2226

Temperature range (°C): 1.324 - 3.333

Nitrate (umol/L): 32.128 - 41.949

Salinity (PPS): 33.620 - 34.584

Oxygen (ml/l): 0.584 - 4.040

Phosphate (umol/l): 2.518 - 3.280

Silicate (umol/l): 79.456 - 192.813
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
                                        
Specimen Records:28Public Records:1
Specimens with Sequences:22Public Species:1
Specimens with Barcodes:21Public BINs:1
Species:4         
Species With Barcodes:3         
          
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Locations of barcode samples

Collection Sites: world map showing specimen collection locations for Galiteuthis

Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Galiteuthis

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Source: Wikipedia

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