Overview

Distribution

In 1899 is een kolonie verzameld vóór de Belgische kust (51°20’N-2°53’O: collectie KBIN). Eénmaal aangespoeld op plastic in Heist op 20 december 2005.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

This species is common around all British coasts. It occurs as far south as Mauritania and the western Mediterranean up as far north as western Norway. It has not been recorded in the Arctic.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Morphology

Colonies grow into a branched, stagshorn-like growth, 30-40mm in height and yellow to orange in colour. The branches are cylindrical and tapering towards the growing tip; they divide dichotomously in one or more planes. Often this gives rise to a fan shaped structure, but frequently several branches arise from the encrusting base to develop a three-dimensional rounded shape. This distinctive branching pattern gives rise to a common name ‘Monkey-puzzle’ bryozoan, after the South American tree. Autozooids are arranged in alternating longitudinal series, disposed around the axis of the branch. They are oval, convex and separated by shallow grooves. They measure 0.6-0.9x0.3-0.6 mm. The frontal shield of the zooids is smooth and fine-grained; there are a few inconspicuous marginal pores. The primary orifice is wider than long, the proximal edge is shallowly concave. The peristome is very deep, with a large, round latero-suboral pseudospiramen. This is adjacent to a large avicularium that is enfolded by the peristome and extends into an elongated hollow spike. These spikes give the colony a characteristic appearance with the naked eye. The avicularium has an elongated triangular rostrum; it is strongly hooked. It has a complete crossbar, with a small median columella and no palate.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Size

Colonies grow up to 30-40mm in height and diameter.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic Description

Description

Uit een korstvormende basis, die qua vorm en zoïden aan C. pumicosa kan doen denken, groeit een opgerichte, vertakkende kolonie, die op het gewei van een hert lijkt. Zoïden rondom de tak, ovaal, convex. Enkele kleine, wijd uiteen staande marginale poriën. Op het eerste zicht sterk gelijkend op C. pumicosa. De opening is een dwarse ellips, niet rond. Het peristoom vormt ook een stekelachtige bult met avicularium. Het peristoom heeft echter een inkeping naast het avicularium, die later bovenaan dichtgroeit, zodat er een ronde opening overblijft. Broedkamers bolrond, zonder poriën, met een opgerichte lip rond hun opening.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

This species might get confused with other erect branching species such as Palmiskenea skenei and Porella compressa. It should be distinguishable by branching pattern, presence of the large hooked avicularium and habitat preference.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

This species encrusts shell, stones and other live substrate such as erect hydroids or bryozoans (Cellaria species). It is a sublittoral species, occurring from the kelp zone down to 80m or so.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 66 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 7 - 113.5
  Temperature range (°C): 8.330 - 11.851
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.669 - 8.324
  Salinity (PPS): 35.109 - 35.352
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.013 - 6.248
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.414 - 0.614
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.442 - 3.342

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 7 - 113.5

Temperature range (°C): 8.330 - 11.851

Nitrate (umol/L): 5.669 - 8.324

Salinity (PPS): 35.109 - 35.352

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.013 - 6.248

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.414 - 0.614

Silicate (umol/l): 2.442 - 3.342
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

The ovicell of this species is prominent, spherical, finely granular and without pores. There is a narrow rim around its aperture. Embryos have been observed in March and August to November in the western Mediterranean and in July and August at Lundy, Bristol Channel.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Erect branching structure developing into planar or three-dimensional structures.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© Natural History Museum, London

Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!