Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This encrusting bryozoan forms extensive patches, to 20cm or more across. It is normally dull orange-brown in colour with regularly distributed low bumps in the middle of the colony.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Distribution

In 1902 is een kolonie verzameld bij de Stroombank (collectie KBIN). In België tussen 1999 en 2005 zes maal aangetroffen op aangespoeld plastic. In 2005 werden 2 overleden kolonies opgevist op schelpen bij de Westhinderbank.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region), southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: eastern Bradelle Valley), northern Gaspe waters, downstream part of middle St. Lawrence estuary, Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway), middle North Shore (from Sept- Iles to Cape Whittle, including the Mingan Islands); lower St. Lawrence estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Parasmittina trispinosa is a cool temperate species, distributed off all British coasts. It ranges north to western Norway and the Faroe Isles, but is thought not to reach Arctic waters.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Physical Description

Morphology

Parasmittina trispinosa is an encrusting bryozoan. Colonies form orange to yellowish-white sheets which have nodules distributed across the surface. Colonies may be composed of a single layer or multiple layers of autozooids. Autozooids are elongate, quadrate to oval or irregular in outline. They are 0.4-1.0 by 0.26-0.38 mm.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt een geelwitte één- of meerlagige korst. Zoïden 0,4 tot 1,0 mm lang, langwerpig, vlak of wat convex. Frontaal eerst glad en doorschijnend, later korrelig en ruw. Marginale poriën. De opening is rond en heeft een eerder onopvallende, korte lyrula en tengere, puntige neerwaarts gebogen scharnierpunten. De rand van de opening is lateraal en proximaal opgericht, met proximaal een diepe spleet. De 2 of 3 korte orale stekels gaan vlug verloren. Avicularia kenmerkend proximolateraal van de opening en van de opening weg of er naartoe gericht. Niet op alle zoïden aanwezig. Mandibel driehoekig. Heel kleine bijkomende avicularia kunnen voorkomen bij de marginale poriën. Broedkamers bolrond, met enkele grote, onregelmatige frontale poriën. Embryo’s rood.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 321 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 84 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 183
  Temperature range (°C): 4.944 - 24.954
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.615 - 11.875
  Salinity (PPS): 31.235 - 36.325
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.469 - 6.794
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 1.048
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.329 - 20.289

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 183

Temperature range (°C): 4.944 - 24.954

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.615 - 11.875

Salinity (PPS): 31.235 - 36.325

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.469 - 6.794

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.094 - 1.048

Silicate (umol/l): 1.329 - 20.289
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The species is able to colonise hard substrates including stones and shells. It is often found on vertical faces of large boulders. It ranges from shallow subtidal waters to the continental shelf, and is often abundant on offshore shell banks. Parasmittina trispinosa can tolerate high energy environments.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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A typical sublittoral species on large boulders or bedrock, often on vertical faces.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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