Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This bryozoan forms an encrusting patch which gives rise to upright plates, looking like a small piece of Pentapora foliacea.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Distribution

In België aanwezig op aangespoeld plastic in Blankenberge op 27 december 1999 en in Zeebrugge op 8 januari 2000. In Nederland spoelde een kolonie aan op kurk op 16 januari 1949 bij Scheveningen (Perk, 2000).
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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This species has been recorded from all the western coasts of the British Isles, the English Channel and the on the east coast from Northumberland. Recent records have included the Farne Islands. It is thought to reach its northern limit off western Norway. Records from outside the north-east Atlantic should be viewed with caution.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Recorded from western Norway, south to the western Mediterranean Sea. Found off all western coasts of the British Isles and on North Sea coasts and the English Channel.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Physical Description

Morphology

Colonies are encrusting. They grow as broad patches and may also rise up from the substrate and develop into convoluted foliose lobes. The colonies may be unilaminar or bilaminar (two sheets in contact at the basal region). The colonies are a deep orange-red colour. Colonies may get confused with young Pentapora or foliose growths of Schizoporellid species because of this erect growth habit. The autozooids are hexagonal or quadrate, they are separated by distinct sutures and measure 0.5-0.7x0.3-0.4mm. Large spatulate adventitious avicularia are present in this species. The primary orifice is semi-orbicular, and has a short quadrate or anvil shaped lyrula proximally. Paired lateral condyles are also a key feature. When ovicells are present they are prominent, broader than long and the frontal surface is perforated by numerous  small round or irregular pores.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Size

Colonies can grow into large patches of 10cm or so across, lobes can grow up to 5 cm high.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt brede korsten of bladachtige lobben, éénlagig of in twee lagen die rug aan rug groeien. Zoïden 0,5 tot 0,7 mm lang, zes- of vierhoekig, vlak of lichtjes convex, de dunne frontale wand is druk geperforeerd door vrij grote ronde poriën. Opening breder dan lang, met aan de proximale boord een vierkante of aambeeldvormige lyrula, en twee scherpe scharnierpunten, die aan hun basis gebogen zijn. Laterale wanden aan de opening opgericht, in de proximale gleuf in deze opgerichte rand ligt het avicularium. Geen orale stekels. Avicularia klein met een semi-elliptische mandibel, gelegen in de proximale gleuf in de opgerichte mondrand. Grote avicularia zijn sporadisch, soms algemeen aanwezig, ze staan lateraal, zelden suboraal ingeplant. Broedkamers breder dan lang, geperforeerd door vele, kleine of onregelmatige poriën.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Look Alikes

This species could get confused with young colonies of Pentapora or Schizoporellid species.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Ecology

Habitat

Colonies grow on bedrock or stable boulders, wedged stones or shells near the low water mark downwards into the sublittoral. Its lower bathymetric range is unknown.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Depth range based on 14 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 15 - 686
  Temperature range (°C): -1.516 - 17.140
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.211 - 33.392
  Salinity (PPS): 34.618 - 38.201
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.103 - 7.626
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 2.372
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.247 - 110.255

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 15 - 686

Temperature range (°C): -1.516 - 17.140

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.211 - 33.392

Salinity (PPS): 34.618 - 38.201

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.103 - 7.626

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.096 - 2.372

Silicate (umol/l): 1.247 - 110.255
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Found on shells, stones and rocks from low water mark to deep water.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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General Ecology

Ecology

This species is often found growing amongst Dead men’s fingers (Alcyonium digitatum), possibly an indication of conditions with moderate to strong tidal flow.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

This species broods a single embryo per ovicell; the embryo is bright red in colour. The presence of embryos has been recorded in January, March and October-November in material collected from around the Isle of Man.

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Growth

Growth may be encrusting on bedrock surfaces, with colonies sometimes growing away from the substrate into foliaceous lobes.

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