Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Escharoides coccinea forms reddish-orange encrusting colonies of many individuals (zooids) that are separated from each other by a deep groove. Individual zooids are quadrangular in shape with a convex-shaped upper surface. The upper surface has a broad opening (orifice) that is sealed by an operculum and marked by a wide shelf inside the outer rim and distinct tooth-like projections on the inner rim. The side of the orifice facing the edge of the colony bears an arc of 6, long, tubular spines, although these are absent from fertile zooids that house globular-shaped ovicells encasing red coloured embryos instead. The sides of the individual zooids are calcified with irregular nodules and marked along the edges by large pores. On either side of the orifice is a smaller, pointed, avicularia that extends outwards away from the main zooid.Individuals colonies of Escharoides coccinea have a life span of at least 2 years.
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Distribution

Algemeen op aangespoeld plastic en andere voorwerpen en riemwiervoetjes langs onze kusten (De Blauwe 2000a, 2000b, 2000c, 2005, Vanhaelen M.-Th. et al., 2006). In Westkapelle in Nederland op een aangespoelde kreeftenfuik in 2004. In 2005 aangetroffen op een aangevoerd muiltje van de Kaloot (de Ruijter, 2005b). Vroeger ook aangespoeld op kurk in Scheveningen en Noordwijk (Lacourt, 1949). Davoult et al. (1993) rapporteert deze soort op keien ter hoogte van Cap Gris-Nez in 1989 op een diepte tussen 35 en 45 meter.
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Escharoides coccinea is a boreal species, widespread and often common around the British Isles and Ireland. It extends south into the Mediterranean, as far as the Aegean and Madeira. It ranges north to Shetland and the west coast of Norway but is apparently absent from the Faroe Isles and Arctic waters.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Physical Description

Morphology

Escharoides coccinea is an encrusting bryozoan. The colonies form extensive sub-circular patches that are red-orange in colour. Autozooids are broad, quadrangular and convex. They range in size from 0.6-0.7 by 0.3-0.4 mm, with six thick tubular spines.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt grote oranje korsten. Zoïden 0,6-0,7 mm lang. Het aanvankelijk gladde frontale oppervlak verkalkt snel. De onregelmatig verspreide bobbeltjes doen denken aan de stippen van een lieveheersbeestje. Frontaal niet geperforeerd, marginale poriën zijn wel aanwezig, maar door voortschrijdende verkalking worden ze verborgen. Op de distale rand van de opening staan aanvankelijk 6 flinke stekels, die later afbreken. De proximale rand van de opening is verheven en getand. Een vierkante tand staat boven het operculum binnen in de proximale zijde van de opening. Aan weerszijden van de zoïdenopening staat een groot avicularium, schuin distaal gericht en net als de zoïde bezaaid met bobbeltjes. Mandibel langwerpig driehoekig. Broedkamers frontaal afgeplat met zelfde bobbelig oppervlak als de zoïde. Embryo’s rood. Ancestrula ovaal, frontaal niet verkalkt, maar membraneus. Rond het membraan staan 13 à 14 stekels.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 10 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 6 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 597
  Temperature range (°C): -0.197 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.158 - 13.432
  Salinity (PPS): 34.633 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.151 - 6.965
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.351 - 0.948
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.118 - 7.787

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 597

Temperature range (°C): -0.197 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.158 - 13.432

Salinity (PPS): 34.633 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.151 - 6.965

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.351 - 0.948

Silicate (umol/l): 2.118 - 7.787
 
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The species is able to colonise a wide range of substrates including stones, shells and rocky overhangs. It is particularly associated with Laminaria holdfasts, where it is frequently a significant and conspicuous part of the bryozoan epifauna. It is a characteristic component of intertidal rocky shore communities on all British coasts and extends into subtidal water beyond the kelp zone. Its precise depth range is uncertain.

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 Escharoides coccinea is found on rocky coasts attached to hard substratum, stones, the holdfasts of Laminaria and below rocks on the lower shore and in shallow water.
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