Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Bugula plumosa is an encrusting bryozoan, prevalent in the southern part of the British Isles. The colonies are composed of several tall feathery fan-like tufts, arranged spirally around the central stem, to resemble small Christmas trees. Colonies can grow up to 8 cm in height and appear a buffish-orange colour.

The species is typically found hanging in caves, and below boulders on the shore. It is also common on pier pilings and harbour installations. In deep waters, B. plumosa has been dredged from stones and shells. The species ranges from the intertidal zone to about 50 m and is often found in areas of considerable turbidity and sand-scour.

Bugula plumosa is common in the southern part of the British Isles, extending south to Madeira and the Mediterranean. In the north of the British Isles, B. plumosa is replaced by Bugula purpurotincta.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Description

 The buff to orange colonies of Bugula plumosa comprise several feathery tufts up to 8 cm in height. Each 'tuft' consists of spirally arranged branches that arise from a mass of tangled rhizoids. The slender zooids are ca 0.4-0.5 x 0.1-0.2 mm and arranged in two rows along the branches. In this species, over three-quarters of the frontal surface has a membranous covering. The zooids outer margin protrudes distally to form an unjointed spine. No spine is present on the inner margin. The avicularia are very small, shorter than the width of the zooids and have a slightly down curved lip (beak). The polypides have 14 tentacles.Bugula plumosa may be mistaken for Bugula flabellata due to their similar tufted appearance although Bugula flabellata has much broader flattened 'tufts'. Like most other bryozoan species, Bugula plumosa is predated upon by various species of nudibranchs such as Janolus cristatus and Polycera faeroensis. Bugula plumosa is primarily a southern species replaced mainly by Bugula purpurotincta in the north of the British Isles. 

The ovicells of this species appear globular when full of embryos. The embryos are yellow and present from July to September. The first zooid to form a colony after metamorphosis from a free-swimming larvae (known as the ancestrula) is vase-shaped, having a circular, terminal frontal membrane with no surrounding spines (Ryland & Hayward, 1977).

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Source: Marine Life Information Network

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Description

This bryozoan forms feathery colonies shaped like tiny christmas trees. Bugula purpurotincta is similar but has a less well-defined spiral structure and releases a purple dye in alcohol.
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© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Distribution

Loppens (1906) vermeldt deze soort als tamelijk zeldzaam op schelpen. Op de Vlaamse Banken werden in 1905 drie kolonies en in 1911 één kolonie opgevist (collectie KBIN). In België in 1999 gevonden in de Spuikom van Oostende (Polk, 1976 & Kerckhof, 2000) en op de rotsblokken langs de Oostelijke strekdam van de Zeebrugse haven (Baai van Heist) net onder de laagwaterlijn. Algemeen in Zeeland op stenen en in havens. Noordelijker in Nederland gemeld van Den Helder en de voormalige Zuiderzee (Lacourt, 1949). Op aangespoeld plastic bij Egmond aan Zee in november 2007 (de Ruijter, 2008).
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region); Prince Edward Island (from the Northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway)
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Description

Langwerpige, vederige bosjes zijn spiraalvormig ingeplant op een hoofdsteel. Lengte tot 8 cm. Kleur licht bruingeel-oranje. De takjes bestaan uit twee rijen zoïden. Zoïden tenger, proximaal het smalst, 3/4 tot bijna heel het frontale oppervlak membraneus. Binnenhoek zonder stekel. Distale buitenhoek met één opvallende stekel. Polypide met 14 tentakels. Avicularia heel klein, hun lengte minder dan de breedte van een zoïde. De bek is zwak omlaag gebogen. Een broedkamer met embryo’s ziet er bolrond uit. Embryo’s geel, van juli tot september. Ancestrula vaasvormig met een ronde terminale frontale membraan, zonder stekels.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Ecology

Habitat

circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Depth range based on 109 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 19 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 76
  Temperature range (°C): 9.968 - 12.270
  Nitrate (umol/L): 3.301 - 7.251
  Salinity (PPS): 34.633 - 35.343
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.125 - 6.375
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.335 - 0.501
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.118 - 3.727

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 76

Temperature range (°C): 9.968 - 12.270

Nitrate (umol/L): 3.301 - 7.251

Salinity (PPS): 34.633 - 35.343

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.125 - 6.375

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.335 - 0.501

Silicate (umol/l): 2.118 - 3.727
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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 This species can be found in small groups or as a 'turf' on rocks or other hard surfaces, especially on harbour walls and pier pilings. It is a littoral and sublittoral species down to >50 m depth.
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Source: Marine Life Information Network

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Bugula plumosa is a common bryozoan in a variety of habitats, most common in areas with considerable turbidity and sand-scour.
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© National Museums Northern Ireland and its licensors

Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bugula plumosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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