Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Securiflustra securifrons is a subtidal species, present off all British coasts and particularly abundant towards the north of the country. The species is the disturbed throughout the subarctic boreal zone, down to the south coast of Spain. Colonies often exceed 10 cm in height, forming erect branched tufts, with terminally-squared or wedge-shaped fronds that are laterally flattened. Securiflustra securifrons attaches to hard substrates including stones and shells by an encursting basal portionof the colony. The colonies are whitish to light brown, becoming lighter towards the end of each frond.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Distribution

Eglleston (1975) reports a frequent ashore drifting on sandy beaches.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2001). Mosdiertjes (Bryozoa) van Northumberland, SWG-reis april 2000 [Bryozoa of Northumberland, SWG-trip april 2000]. De Strandvlo 21(1): 13-35
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Securiflustra securifrons (Pallas, 1766) is een noordelijke soort die hier niet verwacht wordt. In het KBIN is er één kolonie aanwezig, opgevist in het Kanaal op 7 februari 1906 op 28 à 34 m diepte op het traject 50°45’N-1°3’O tot 50°46’ N-1°9’O. Alle andere stalen in het KBIN die als S. securifrons gelabeld waren, zijn in feite Chartella papyracea. Op 12 maart 2003 spoelde een plastic stoeltje aan op Vlieland, daarop werden ongeveer 20 kolonies aangetroffen die als S. securifrons werden gedetermineerd (de Ruijter, 2003a). Dit materiaal dat Chartella papyracea kon geweest zijn, is niet bewaard gebleven.
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Gulf of St. Lawrence (unspecified region); lower North Shore
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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S. securifrons is a cold temperate species, widely distributed throughout boreal zone of the northern hemisphere. The species extends to the south coast of Spain.

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Physical Description

Morphology

S. securifrons forms erect branching colonies, comprised of angular, wedge-shaped fronds, which fork towards the distal end. Colony colour varies form whitish to light brown. Zooids are typically narrow, elongated and rectangular shaped, but may be distorted by developing brood chambers (ovicells). The zooid structure is simple without spines and the thin body wall is only lightly calcified. The frontal surface is entirely membranous and the colony as a whole is flexible. Zooids are arranged with two layers “back to back” to form a bilaminar sheet. The colony is edged by rows of narrow kenozooids (specialised zooids, lacking a polypide) which branch frequently to give rise to a new row autozooids. Avicularia, which are about a quarter of the length of zooids, are inserted in the zooid rows. The rostrum is raised and thickened, bearing a semicircular brown chitinous mandible.

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Size

Erect colonies often exceed 10 cm in height. Zooids are between 0.7 and 1.1 by 0.14 and 0.2 mm.

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Diagnostic Description

Description

De kolonie vormt een witachtig bosje tot 10 cm hoog. Bladen vaak wigvormig met hoekige top. Zijbladen ontspringen op laterale kenozoïden. Zoïden rechthoekig, lang en smal, 0,7 tot 1,1 mm lang en 0,14 tot 0,2 mm breed. De distale hoek van de zoïde draagt geen stekel. De bladrand is omzoomd door een rij kenozoïden. Avicularia zitten tussen de zoïden in de zoïdenrijen, ze zijn vierhoekig, met verhoogd en verdikt rostrum en halfcirkelvormige, bruine mandibel. Broedkamers bolvormig en verzonken.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Look Alikes

Securiflustra securifrons bares a superficial resemblance to other species in the Flustridae family. In particular F. foliacea may be confused with Securiflustra securifrons, but the fronds of  S. securifrons are typically narrower, and divided into wedge-shaped segments, unlike F. foliacea.

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Ecology

Habitat

circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 192 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 25 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 325
  Temperature range (°C): 2.687 - 11.244
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 14.943
  Salinity (PPS): 33.882 - 35.229
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.104 - 6.667
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.321 - 0.978
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 10.217

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 325

Temperature range (°C): 2.687 - 11.244

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.402 - 14.943

Salinity (PPS): 33.882 - 35.229

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.104 - 6.667

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.321 - 0.978

Silicate (umol/l): 0.987 - 10.217
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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S. securifrons colonises rocks, boulders and other hard substrata. It has been reported from nearshore environments (~10 m) down to 100 m. This species has been recorded from brackish environments in the Netherlands, as well as the Baltic Sea (Winston 1977)

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Trophic Strategy

Like all bryozoans, S. securifrons is a suspension feeder. It feeds on small phytoplankton using ciliated tentacles of the lophophore.

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Associations

S. securifrons is predated upon by nudibranchs including Crimora papillata.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

The founding zooid (ancestrula) develops into a young colony, and later into an adult colony through asexual budding. Sexually produced embryos are brooded within the colony and larvae released. Larvae settle soon after liberation and metamorphose into an ancestrula.

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Reproduction

Colonies are hermaphroditic. Sexually-produced embryos, which are dull pinkish to orange in colour, are brooded within specialised brood chambers (ovicells) before larvae are released. The larvae of S. securifrons are large non-feeding coronate larvae, which lack a shell and have a densely ciliated belt (the corona) for locomotion. They have a short pelagic life span.

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Growth

Colonies grow through asexual budding of new zooids.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Securiflustra securifrons

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACTCTTTACTTCTTGTTTGGTTTATGGGCTGGTATAATTGGTAGTGGTTTG---AGGGCCTTAATTCGTGTTGAATTAAGGCAATCTGGTGGTTTACTAGGTAAT---GATCAGCTTTATAATGTTATTGTTACAGCTCATGCTTTTTTGATGATTTTTTTTATGGTTATGCCTATTATAATTGGTGGTTTTGGTAATTGGTTGATTCCTTTAATA---TTAGGTGTTCCTGATATGGCTTTTCCTCGTTTGAATAATATAAGCTTTTGGTTGCTTCCTCCGGCTCTTATTTTGTTGTTGATATCTTCGATGGTAGAAAGGGGGGCAGGTACTGGTTGGACTGTTTACCCCCCTCTCTCTTCTAATCTTGCTCATAGTGGGTCTTCTGTTGATTTG---GCTATTTTTTCTTTACATTTGGCGGGAGCTTCTTCTATTTTGGGGGCAGTTAATTTTATAACTACTGTTATGAATATGCGTAGTTCTTTAATAAGTATGATGCGTTTGTCTTTATTGGTGTGGGCTGTCTTTATTACTGCTGTTTTATTATTACTTTCTTTACCTGTTTTGGCTGGG---GCTATTACTATATTGTTGACGGATCGTAATTTAAATACTTCTTTTTTTGATCCGGCAGGTGGTGGTGACCCTATTTTGTACCAACATCTT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Securiflustra securifrons

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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