The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Arnold, Augusta Foote. 1903. Sea-Beach at Ebb-Tide. New York : Century Co.; Plate LI
  • Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2013). WoRMS Bryozoa: World List of Bryozoa (version 2013-03-04). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
  • Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., (2001). Photographic guide to the sea and seashore life of Britain and north-west Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Gordon, D. (2014). Membranipora membranacea (Linnaeus, 1767). In: Bock, P.; Gordon, D. (2014) World List of Bryozoa. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Harvell CD.   1986.  The ecology and evolution of inducible defences in a marine bryozoan: cues, costs and consequences.. The American Naturalist. 128(6):810-823.
  • Hayward, P., (1995). Antarctic cheilostomatous bryozoa. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S., (1979). British ascophoran bryozoans. London: Academic Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S., (1998). Cheilostomatous Bryozoa. Part 1. Aeteoidea - Cribrilinoidea. Shrewsbury: Field Studies Council. [Synopses of the British Fauna, no. 10. (2nd edition)] External link.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • LAMARE Véronique, PETIT DE VOIZE Patrice, in : DORIS, 22/10/2013 : Membranipora membranacea (Linnaeus, 1767),
  • Langeron, Maurice. 1906. Atlas Colorie des Plantes et Des Animaux des Cotes de France. Paris, France : Librairie J.-B, Baukkuere et Fils; Tab. 21
  • Linnaeus, C. (1767). Systema naturae sive regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae. 12th ed. v. 1 (pt 2): 533-1327
  • Membranipora membranacea (L.)
  • Ryland, J.S., (1970). Bryozoans. London: Hutchinson University Library. External link.
  • Saunders MI, Metaxas A.   2008.   High recruitment of the introduced bryozoan Membranipora membranacea is associated with kelp bed defoliation in Nova Scotia, Canada. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 369
  • Saunders MI, Metaxas A.   2009.  Population dynamics of a nonindigenous epiphytic bryozoan Membranipora membranacea in the western North Atlantic: effects of kelp substrate. Aquatic Biology. 8
  • Stachowitsch, M., (1992). The invertebrates: an illustrated glossary. USA: Wiley-Liss. External link.


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