Overview

Comprehensive Description

Colonies of C. eburnea form fragile white tufts as they grow on the stems of algae. Branches curve somewhat inward, and joints are yellowish in color. Zooids are tubular and punctate, approximately 0.10 X 0.25 mm on average. The orifice comes to a point distally. This species has short internodes of 5 - 7 zooids.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Distribution

Loppens (1906) noemt deze soort algemeen op aangespoelde Flustra foliacea. Lacourt (1949) vermeldt het aanspoelen op Flustra foliacea, hydroïden en kurk langs de gehele Nederlandse kust. Maitland (1851) vermeldt vindplaatsen als Zandvoort, Katwijk en Scheveningen, waarschijnlijk op aangespoelde wieren en Flustra foliacea. Spoelt vaak aan op zeeden (Abietinaria abietina), Flustra foliacea, plastic en riemwiervoetjes (De Blauwe, 2005; Vanhaelen, et al., 2006).
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North Carolina to Labrador
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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C. eburnea is common in cold water areas from Europe through West Africa in the eastern Atlantic, and from Labrador to Florida in the western Atlantic. C. eburnea occurs in the India River Lagoon in association with algae and seagrasses. Within the India River Lagoon, it has been reported only from around the Sebastian Inlet grass flats; however, it is likely to occur at other locations as well.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Physical Description

Size

Individual zooids measure 0.10 X 0.25 mm on average.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt dichte bosjes tot 2 cm hoog. De takken zijn kenmerkend naar binnen gebogen. Internoden bestaan gewoonlijk uit 5 tot 7 zoïden. Zijtakken ontspringen gewoonlijk op de 1ste zoïde in een internode, afwisselend links en rechts van de hoofdtak. Verbindingen geel of kleurloos bij jonge internoden, bruin in oudere koloniedelen. Peristoom kort en frontaal omgebogen, met de opening voorwaarts gericht. Soms een kleine puntige uitgroeiing naast de opening. Gonozoïde druppelvormig, vervangt de 2de of soms de 3de zoïde in de internode. De gonozoïdenopening is rond of dwars ovaal, schuin omhoog en voorwaarts gericht op een geleidelijk vernauwend buisje.
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Ecology

Habitat

bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 470 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 52 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 2045
  Temperature range (°C): 3.364 - 23.867
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.242 - 22.114
  Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.446
  Oxygen (ml/l): 3.653 - 7.160
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 1.496
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.685 - 15.679

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 2045

Temperature range (°C): 3.364 - 23.867

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.242 - 22.114

Salinity (PPS): 27.165 - 36.446

Oxygen (ml/l): 3.653 - 7.160

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.097 - 1.496

Silicate (umol/l): 1.685 - 15.679
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

C. eburnea, like all bryozoans, is a suspension feeder. Each individual zooid in a colony has ciliated tentacles that are extended to filter phytoplankton less than 0.045 mm in size (about 1/1800 of an inch) from the water column. Bullivant (1967; 1968) showed that the average individual zooid in a colony can clear 8.8 ml of water per day.Habitats: Typical habitat for ectoprocts in the Indian River Lagoon include seagrasses, drift algae, oyster reef, dock, pilings, breakwaters, and man-made debris (Winston 1995). C. eburnea occurs growing on algae, and ion seagrasses. In the IRL, it has been found growing in association with the red algae Solieria tenera.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Associations

Seagrasses as well as floating macroalgae, provide support for bryozoan colonies. In turn, bryozoans provide habitat for many species of juvenile fishes and their invertebrate prey such as polychaete worms, amphipods and copepods. (Winston 1995).Bryozoans are also found in association with other species that act as support structures: mangrove roots, oyster beds, mussels, etc.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Population Biology

Though C. eburnea is common throughout its range, Winston (1982) reported its occurrence only once, from the grass flats around Sebastian Inlet where it was found growing on the Rhodophyte Soliera tenera.Locomotion: Sessile
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Small microorganisms, including diatoms and other unicellular algae.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Growth

Gonozooids in C. eburnea generally occur between the fourth and fifth zooid of a fertile internode. They are elongate and roughly club shaped, but rounded distally. The oeciopore is a short tube with a transverse ovoid opening. Larvae emerging from the oeciopore remain on the parent colony briefly before entering the water column (Winston 1982).
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Crisia eburnea

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ACCTTGTATTTTTTATTTGCCATTTGAGCAGGTTTAATCGGAAGAGCTATG---TCTTTTATTATCCGTAGAGAATTAAGACAACCAGGCTCGTTCCTTTCAGAT---GACCAACTTTATAATGTTATTGTAACAAGCCATGCGTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTCTTTGTAATACCCATAATAATTGGTGGCTTCGGAAACTGACTAATTCCTTTAATAATA---AAATCTCCAGATATAGCATTTCCACGACTGAACAATATAAGATTTTGGTTATTACCCCCAGCATTATTATTCCTTACAACCTCGTCAATTGTAGACAATGGTGCAGGTACTGGGTGAACCGTTTATCCACCACTATCAGACTCTTTAGCCCACAGAGGAAAAAGAGTTGACTTA---ACAATCTTTGCACTACACTTGGCAGGAATCTCATCAATTTTAGGAGCTCTCAATTTTATTACAACTATTATAAAAATACGAAGAAAAGAA---AGAATTGATAAATCAACACTTTTTATTTGATCAATTATTATCACAGCTATTTTACTATTAATTTCTTTGCCGGTATTAGCTGGA---GCTATTACAATACTATTAACAGATCGAAATTTCAACACTTCATTTTTCGACCCTACTGGAGGAGGTGACCCTATTTTATAT
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crisia eburnea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Benefit in IRL: Bryozoans are ecologically important in the Indian River Lagoon due to their feeding method. As suspension feeders, they act as living filters in the marine environment. For example, Winston (1995) reported that bryozoan colonies located in 1 square meter of seagrass bed could potentially filter and recirculate an average of 48,000 gallons of seawater per day.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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