Overview

Comprehensive Description

A. palmata is an arborescent bryozoan whose colonies form limp, tufted tangles that are brown in color. Zooids occur only at the tips of branches and do not bud from the sides of mature individuals as occurs in other species. Individual zooids are cylindrical and measure approximately 0.79 X 0.13 mm (Winston 1982). The lophophore measures an average of 0.205 mm in diameter, and bears 10 tentacles. Colonies tend to become covered in a fine layer of silt that makes them opaque in appearance.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Distribution

Op stenen, schelpen, palen en strandhoofden, laag in het getijdengebied, vooral waar veel slib aanwezig is. Kan lage en schommelende zoutgehaltes verdragen. Loppens (1906) noemt deze soort algemeen in België. Uit Nederland vernoemd van de haven van Den Helder (van der Sleen, 1920) en de Texelstroom (van Benthem Jutting, 1922), Waddengebied (Lacourt, 1978). In 1990 gevonden op strandhoofden in Oostende en Duinbergen (d’Udekem d’Acoz, 1991) en op de oostelijke strekdam in Zeebrugge in februari 1993 (d’Udekem d’Acoz, 1993). Plaatselijk algemeen langs de Belgische kust (Baai van Heist, strandhoofd Koksijde) en in Zeeland (Westkapelle, westelijk deel van de Westerschelde en de Oosterschelde). Vooral in de zomer en het najaar, het ene jaar algemener dan het andere.
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Virginian, south side of Cape Cod, and extending northward of the subprovince limit
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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A. palmata is a highly cosmopolitan species, occurring in the western Atlantic from Massachusetts south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean and Brazil. A. palmata is likely to occur throughout the Indian River Lagoon; however, it is considered to be most common around the Sebastian Inlet area (Winston 1982).
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Physical Description

Size

Individuals measure 0.79 mm X 0.13 mm on average, with the lophophore measuring 0.205 mm in diameter (Winston 1982).
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Diagnostic Description

description

Vormt grijsbruine, modderkleurige bosjes, 5 tot 20 cm hoog. Doet eerder aan een hydroïde denken of aan een miniatuur van viltwier (Codium). Meerdere hoofdtakken hebben spiraalsgewijs ingeplante zijtakken. De zoïden ontspringen opzij van de zijtakken. Uit elke zoïde kunnen nieuwe zoïden ontspringen. De kolonie is vastgehecht met slanke rhizoïden. Zoïden ondoorschijnend, langwerpig cilindrisch, licht naar de as van de kolonie gebogen. Door aanhechting van slib blijft enkel de terminale opening goed zichtbaar. Polypide relatief klein met 10 of 11 tentakels. d’Udekem d’Acoz (1993) maakt melding van overwinteringsknoppen of hibernacula’s op kolonies uit België in februari.
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Look Alikes

A. palmata may easily be mistaken for silt-covered marine algae. However, the presence of the lophophore helps differentiate bryozoans from algae.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 12 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -99 - 16.5

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -99 - 16.5
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Trophic Strategy

A. palmata, like all bryozoans, is a suspension feeder. Each individual zooid in a colony has 10 ciliated tentacles that are extended to filter phytoplankton less than 0.045 mm in size (about 1/1800 of an inch) from the water column. Bullivant (1967; 1968) showed that the average individual zooid in a colony can clear 8.8 ml of water per day.Habitats: Typical habitat for A. palmata, especially around the Sebastian Inlet area is on the rocks of breakwaters (Winston 1982).
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Population Biology

A. palmata is locally abundant at Sebastian Inlet, where it can be collected between January and April. It has also been collected as late in the year as September from the Walton Rocks area (Winston 1982). In the IRL, it is considered a fouling organism (Winston 1995).Locomotion: Sessile
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Life History and Behavior

Growth

The embryology of A. palmata is unknown.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Anguinella palmata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Benefit in IRL: Bryozoans are ecologically important in the Indian River Lagoon due to their feeding method. As suspension feeders, they act as living filters in the marine environment. For example, Winston (1995) reported that bryozoan colonies located in 1 square meter of seagrass bed could potentially filter and recirculate an average of 48,000 gallons of seawater per day.
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Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

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