Overview

Distribution

Een kolonie spoelde aan op een riemwiervoetje in juli 2000 tussen Zeebrugge en Blankenberge (De Blauwe, 2000c) en in september 2007 in Koksijde. Lacourt (1949) meldt een kolonie op een Patella vulgata bij Scheveningen (aangespoeld aan riemwiervoetje?). In april 2007 is aan de Emelissedijk ten westen van Colijnsplaat een oesterklep aangetroffen met daarop een ongedetermineerde Schizoporella. De kolonie is levend aangespoeld, heeft zeer weinig avicularia, de sinus is als van Schizoporella unicornis. Er is een opvallende lage dikke rand rond de opening. Er zijn geen broedkamers aanwezig. Mogelijks gaat het om een geïntroduceerde soort.
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Arctic to Florida
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Schizoporella unicornis is distributed throughout the northeast Atlantic, from northwest Africa and Spain to the Faroes and western Norway

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Source: Bryozoa of the British Isles

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Physical Description

Morphology

Schizoporella unicornis is an encrusting bryozoan that develops pink or white sheets, normally less than 5 cm in diameter. Colonies are composed of a single or multiple layers of autozooids. Autozooids are rectangular to polygonal and convex. They are large, commonly 0.4-0.7 by 0.3-0.5 mm.

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Diagnostic Description

Description

Vormt grote, witte of roze korsten. De zoïden zijn meestal in alternerende rijen gerangschikt. Hun omtrek is breed rechthoekig, 0,4 tot 0,7 mm lang. Frontaal oppervlak convex, gelijkmatig geperforeerd, later ruw gekorreld. Vaak een bultje proximaal van de opening. Opening D-vormig, breder dan lang. Tussen de stompe scharnierpunten ligt een ondiepe U-vormige sinus. 1 of 2 avicularia per zoïde, aan weerszijden van de opening, ter hoogte van de sinus en schuin distaal gericht. De broedkamer leunt op de volgende zoïde. Frontaal oppervlak glad of met kleine bult, lateraal en distaal geperforeerd door kleine poriën en met uitstralende richels. Embryo’s oranjerood. Ancestrula glazig, niet geperforeerd, de opening zonder sinus is omringd door 8 stekels. Distaal ontspringen 3 zoïden. Een andere soort met brede ondiepe sinus, is Schizoporella errata. Deze soort heeft slechts 1 avicularium per zoïde, vormt purperachtige cilinders rond touwen of grillige korsten en komt voor in havens en op schepen ten zuiden van de Zuidelijke bocht van de Noordzee maar is als tijdelijke introductie te verwachten (De Blauwe, 2009).
  • De Blauwe, H. (2009). Mosdiertjes van de Zuidelijke Bocht van de Noordzee. Determinatiewerk voor België en Nederland. Uitgave Vlaams Instituut voor de Zee, Oostende: 464pp.
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Colony encrusting, multiserial, unilamellar or multilamellar, generally less than 5 cm in diameter. Colour normally pink or whitish pink.

Autozooids large but variable in size, length 0.387–0.715 mm (mean 0.529 mm, SD 0.0844 mm, n = 35), width 0.273–0.537 mm (mean 0.383 mm, SD 0.05914 mm, n = 35), on average about 1.4 times longer than wide, broadening before row bifurcations, generally rectangular in shape with wide, squared distal end accommodating single or paired adventitious avicularia. Frontal shield convex, covered with numerous irregularly arranged pseudopores and deep marginal areolar pores. Umbo stout, congruent with boundary between pseudoporous and non-pseudoporous frontal shield. Pseudopores have small openings not changing in size or shape during secondary calcification. Primary orifice broader than long, length (including sinus) 0.115–0.145 mm (mean 0.131 mm, SD 0.00832 mm, n = 25), width 0.143–0.186 mm (mean 0.1635 mm, SD 0.010 mm, n = 25), anter forming a wide D-shape, sinus (poster) a broad U-shape. When the operculum is removed, orifice edge adjacent to condyles runs proximally from sinus to proximolateral corners (i.e. slopes downwards). condyles prominent, fully visible above proximal edge of primary orifice, tips rounded and directed distally; viewed from within, condyles are clearly constructed from calcified oral rim.

Adventitious avicularia either single or paired, directed distolaterally from centre-line. Occasional additional adventitious avicularia developed on frontal shield proximal to primary orifice. In early ontogeny avicularia appear raised but are subsumed into frontal shield during secondary calcification. Rostrum acute with concave sides and upturned tip. Opesia rounded, D-shaped; crossbar without columella. Mandible with an acutely pointed distal tip curved upwards. Rostrum length 0.102–0.181 mm (mean 0.131 mm, SD 0.017 mm, n = 26), width of crossbar 0.056–0.083 mm (mean 0.068 mm, SD 0.0075 mm, n = 26).

Ovicells found in localized clusters or more widely distributed, prominent, round and globular, recumbent on frontal shield of distal zooid, large, 0.247–0.356 mm (mean 0.292 mm, SD 0.029 mm, n = 26) long by 0.318–0.452 mm (mean 0.372 mm, SD 0.032 mm, n = 26) wide. Ooecial surface cryptocystal, bearing radially aligned, scalloped grooves around edges; pores few in number, present only at the periphery, centre imperforate.

Tompsett et al., 2009

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Ecology

Habitat

Infrallitoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 190 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 27 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 70
  Temperature range (°C): 7.967 - 27.099
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.086 - 6.971
  Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 38.444
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.352 - 6.835
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.943
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.247 - 15.658

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 70

Temperature range (°C): 7.967 - 27.099

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.086 - 6.971

Salinity (PPS): 31.893 - 38.444

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.352 - 6.835

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.085 - 0.943

Silicate (umol/l): 1.247 - 15.658
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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The species is able to colonise a wide range of substrates including stones, shells, Laminaria holdfasts and the underside of the button-like thali of Himanthalia. It is commonly found on the underside of flat stones. It ranges from the lower shore to shallow sublittoral waters.

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Associations

Plant / epiphyte
Schizoporella unicornis grows on holdfast of Laminaria
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Schizoporella unicornis grows on Fucus serratus
Other: unusual host/prey

Plant / epiphyte
Schizoporella unicornis grows on Seaweeds
Other: unusual host/prey

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

The larvae of S. unicornis   are non-feeding coronate larvae, which lack a shell and have a  densely ciliated belt (the corona) for locomotion.

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Wikipedia

Schizoporella unicornis

Schizoporella unicornis is a species of bryozoa in the family Schizoporellidae.[1]

References

  1. ^ Phil Bock, Dennis Gordon & Peter Hayward. "Schizoporella unicornis (Johnston in Wood, 1844)". In Phil Bock. World list of Bryozoa. World Register of Marine Species. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=111538. Retrieved May 24, 2012.
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