Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Pelagic as juvenile.
  • North East Atlantic Taxa
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Distribution

This species iS recorded from the eatsern Pacific coast of Panama (see Maluf, 1988).

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© Coppard , Simon

Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

References and links

Theel, H. (1882). Report on the Holothuroidea dredged by H.M.S. 'Challenger' during the years 1873-76. Part i. Challenger Reports, Zool. iv: 176 pp.

Herouard, E. (1896). Note preliminaire sur les Holothuries provenant des dragages du Yacht Princesse-Alice. [Premiere Note.]. Bull. Soc. zool. France xxi: pp. 163-168.

Maluf, L. Y. (1988). Composition and distribution of the central eastern Pacific echinoderms. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports, 2, 1– 242.

Vaney, M.C. (1908). Les Holothuries recueillies par l'Expédition antarctique écossaise. Zoologischer Anzeiger. 33: 290–299.

Barcode of Life

GenBank

World Register of Marine Species

LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:124778
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Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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Synonymised taxa

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Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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Type Information

Holotype for Psychropotes dubiosa Ludwig, 1894
Catalog Number: USNM 18172
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Malpelo Island, SW Of, Colombia, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 3334 to 3334
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Holotype: Ludwig. 1894. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 17(3): 52-53, pl.2, fig.5-7.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Psychropotes raripes Ludwig, 1894
Catalog Number: USNM 18173
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1891
Locality: Cojimies, Ecuador, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 2877 to 2877
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Holotype: Ludwig. 1894. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 17(3): 48-51, pl.5, fig.1-16.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Holotype for Euphronides dyscrita Clark, 1920
Catalog Number: USNM E9899
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1904
Locality: Cerro Azul, Lima, Peru, South Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 5203 to 5203
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Holotype: Clark, H. L. 1920. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 39(4): 139, pl.2, fig.3.
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© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 125 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 105 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 952 - 5322
  Temperature range (°C): -0.555 - 3.232
  Nitrate (umol/L): 17.043 - 41.655
  Salinity (PPS): 34.637 - 34.943
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.890 - 6.238
  Phosphate (umol/l): 1.129 - 2.955
  Silicate (umol/l): 13.977 - 182.877

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 952 - 5322

Temperature range (°C): -0.555 - 3.232

Nitrate (umol/L): 17.043 - 41.655

Salinity (PPS): 34.637 - 34.943

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.890 - 6.238

Phosphate (umol/l): 1.129 - 2.955

Silicate (umol/l): 13.977 - 182.877
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Psychropotes longicauda

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Psychropotes longicauda

Psychropotes longicauda is a species of sea cucumber in the family Psychropotidae. It inhabits the deep sea where the adult is found on the seabed. The larva is pelagic and has an appendage shaped like a sail on its back which may enable it to move through the water.[2]

Description[edit]

As an adult, Psychropotes longicauda has eighteen short feeding tentacles, each with a leathery terminal disc with retractile processes projecting around the margin. Its body is very flexible and can grow to a length of between 14 and 32 cm (5.5 and 12.6 in). It is approximately cylindrical but broadest and somewhat flattened near the anterior end. At the posterior end there is a dorsal, tail-like appendage up to 12 cm (4.7 in) long, either pointed or with a pair of unequal-length tips. There is a double row of small tube feet along the ventral surface and a single row of larger tube feet on each side of the body. The skin is soft and pliable and the colour is violet in preserved specimens.[3]

The larva has ten tentacles and is transparent with a reddish hue at the anterior end. It has an unpaired gelatinous dorsal appendage. Larvae can grow to at least 23 mm (0.91 in) in length excluding the appendage which may be nearly as long as the body.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Psychropotes longicauda is a cosmopolitan abyssal species of sea cucumber and is found on the seabed throughout the world's deep oceans. Its larva is pelagic and is often found more than 500 m (1,600 ft) above the ocean floor but still in the abyssal zone.[4]

Behaviour[edit]

Adult Psychropotes longicauda are found on soft sediments through which they sift with the aid of their feeding tentacles. The eggs, with a diameter of 4.4 mm (0.17 in), are the largest of any echinoderm. The size of the eggs, and the fact that the larvae do not appear to feed, makes it so that the yolk nourishes them for an extended time and that they can therefore disperse widely.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Paulay, Gustav (2013). "Psychropotes longicauda Théel, 1882". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  2. ^ Knowlton, N. 2010. Citizens of the Sea: wondrous creatures from the Census for Marine Life ISBN 978-1-4262-0643-6
  3. ^ Llano, George Albert; Schmitt, Waldo L. eds. (1967). Biology of the Antarctic Seas III. American Geophysical Union. p. 67. ISBN 9780875901114. 
  4. ^ a b c Keegan, Brendan F.; O'Connor, Brendan D.S. eds. (1985). Echinodermata. CRC Press. p. 405. ISBN 9789061915966. 
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