Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology/Natural History: Deep-living. May harbor the intestinal rhabdocoel flatworm Syndisyrinx (Syndesmis) franciscanus. We find this species on sandy/shell hash bottoms in the San Juan Channel at about 100-120 m depth.

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This pale urchin also usually has very light tube feet (as light or lighter than the spines). Spines are whitish or pale yellowish-green. Spines have ridges with nearly flat surfaces and no obvious sculpturing. Strictly subtidal, usually deeper than 30 m.
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Distribution

From low intertidal to more than 200 m depth, on shell or gravel grounds, S. pallidus tends to live within the gravel whereas S. droebachiensis remains on the surface; Orkeny and Shetland
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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southern Gaspe waters (Baie des Chaleurs, Gaspe Bay to American, Orphan and Bradelle banks; eastern boundary: eastern Bradelle valley); South slope of Anticosti Island
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Geographical Range: (Occurs at least here and in Norway, off Russia from the Barents Sea down to the central part of the Sea of Japan). Probably pan-Arctic. This and S. droebachiensis are the only species of urchin in the Puget Sound area that are also found in the NW Pacific off Russia (Bazhin, 1998).

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Physical Description

Type Information

Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31228
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Petropavlovsk, SE of, Kamchatka, Russia, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 88 to 126
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31261
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Aleutian Islands, Rat Islands, Semisopochnoi Island, Petrel Bank, Alaska, United States, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 60 to 79
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31223
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Aleutian Islands, Rat Islands, Semisopochnoi Island, Petrel Bank, Alaska, United States, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 99 to 102
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31225
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Aleutian Islands, Near Islands, Attu Island, Alaska, United States, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 247 to 247
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 32753
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Aleutian Islands, Rat Islands, Semisopochnoi Island, Petrel Bank, Alaska, United States, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 79 to 95
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31221
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Aleutian Islands, Rat Islands, Semisopochnoi Island, Petrel Bank, Alaska, United States, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 79 to 95
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31229
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Petropavlovsk, SE Of, Kamchatka, Russia, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 89 to 89
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31237
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Sakhalin Island, Aniva Cape, South Of, Russia, Sea of Okhotsk, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 117 to 117
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31227
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Commander Islands, Medny Island, Kamchatka, Russia, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 102 to 104
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31231
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Commander Islands, Medny Island, Kamchatka, Russia, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 102 to 102
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31226
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Commander Islands, Medny Island, Kamchatka, Russia, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 99 to 99
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31222
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Petropavlovsk, SE Of, Kamchatka, Russia, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 106 to 126
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 32760
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Kuril Islands, Simushir Island, South Of, Russia, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 419 to 419
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31234
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Commander Islands, Bering Island, Cape Monati, Kamchatka, Russia, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 132 to 132
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31233
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Commander Islands, Bering Island, Cape Monati, Kamchatka, Russia, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 132 to 139
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31232
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Commander Islands, Bering Island, Cape Monati, Kamchatka, Russia, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 117 to 117
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31230
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Hokkaido Island, Kamui Misaki, Hokkaido, Japan, Sea of Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 108 to 108
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31236
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Hokkaido Island, Rebun Island, West Of, Hokkaido, Japan, Sea of Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 157 to 157
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 32759
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Dry
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Honshu Island, Kinkazan Island, Miyagi, Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 236 to 236
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31239
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Honshu Island, Kinkazan Island, Miyagi, Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 236 to 236
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31235
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Honshu Island, Toyama Bay, Toyama, Japan, Sea of Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 238 to 238
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31238
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Collector(s): United States Fish Commission
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Hokkaido Island, Shizunai, West Of, Hokkaido, Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 112 to 256
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Syntype for Strongylocentrotus echinoides Agassiz & Clark, 1907
Catalog Number: USNM 31224
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Preparation: Alcohol (Ethanol)
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Aleutian Islands, Near Islands, Attu Island, Alaska, United States, Bering Sea, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 104 to 108
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Syntype: Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51 (5): 122.; Agassiz, A. E. & Clark, H. L. 1907. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 51(5): 122.
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Look Alikes

How to Distinguish from Similar Species: S. droebachiensis is similar size and only a slightly darker green hue. However, S. droebachiensis has tube feet darker than the spines, and usually purple. The spines of S. droebachiensis have ridges with rounded surfaces and with periodic, somewhat fan-shaped sculpturings.
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"Similar in general shape to Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis but with fewer spines." (Lambert, Austin 2007)

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Ecology

Habitat

circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Depth range based on 98 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 48 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 8 - 510
  Temperature range (°C): -1.712 - 7.261
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.279 - 36.328
  Salinity (PPS): 28.234 - 34.948
  Oxygen (ml/l): 2.881 - 8.499
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.091 - 2.732
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.740 - 84.599

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 8 - 510

Temperature range (°C): -1.712 - 7.261

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.279 - 36.328

Salinity (PPS): 28.234 - 34.948

Oxygen (ml/l): 2.881 - 8.499

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.091 - 2.732

Silicate (umol/l): 3.740 - 84.599
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth Range: Strictly subtidal, and usually deeper than 30 m

Habitat: Known to occur on both sandy/shell hash bottoms and in rocky areas.

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Trophic Strategy

"Most studies indicate an omnivorous diet. On the Grand Banks off Newfoundland gut contents were single-celled benthic organsisms, such as foraminiferans and diatoms, and the remains of various animals such as barnacles, bryozoans, hydroids and amphipods." (Lambert, Austin 2007)

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Breeding

Echinopluteus larva. February to May
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Strongylocentrotus pallidus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 27 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AGACGATGATTATTTTCTACTAACCACAAGGACATCGGAACACTTTATTTGATTTTTGGAGCCTGAGCTGGCATGGTAGGTACAGCTATG---AGTGTGATTATCCGTGCCGAATTGGCACAGCCTGGTTCTCTACTAAAAGAT---GATCAGATATACAAAGTAGTCGTCACCGCACATGCGCTAGTAATGATTTTCTTCATGGTAATGCCAATAATGATTGGTGGATTTGGGAATTGACTCATTCCACTGATG---ATCGGTGCACCAGACATGGCCTTTCCCCGTATGAAAAATATGAGCTTTTGACTTATTCCCCCTTCCTTTATATTACTTTTAGCCTCTGCAGGAGTAGAGAGGGGAGCAGGGACTGGCTGAACTATTTACCCCCCTCTCTCTAGTAAAATAGCACACGCCGGAGGATCCGTTGATTTA---GCGATCTTCTCCCTCCACCTTGCCGGTGCCTCTTCTATCTTAGCCTCAATTAAATTTATAACAACAATTATTAATATGCGGACACCAGGAATGTCTTTTGATCGTCTTCCTTTATTTGTCTGATCCGTCTTTGTTACCGCATTCTTACTACTCCTTTCCCTCCCAGTCTTAGCTGGA---GCAATTACAATGCTTCTTACAGACCGTAAAATAAACACAACTTTCTTCGATCCAGCAGGGGGAGGTGACCCAATTCTATTCCAACACTTATTCTGATTTTTTGGTCACCCAGAAGTATACATTCTTATCTTGCCGGGATTTGGCATGATCTCACACGTCATAGCTCACTACTCTGGAAAGCGG---GAGCCTTTCGGGTACCTGGGAATGGTTTATGCCATGATTGCAATAGGGGTTTTAGGATTCCTTGTCTGAGCCCACCATATGTTTACAGTAGGAATGGATGTTGATACACGAGCATACTTCACTGCCGCCACGATGATCATTGCTGTTCCAACAGGAATTAAGGTTTTCAGATGAATG---GCAACG
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Strongylocentrotus pallidus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 13
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Status

Mortensen (1943: p. 200) considered Toxopneustes pallidus G.O. Sars, 1871 as a junior subjective synonym of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776).
  • Mortensen, T. 1943. A Monograph of the Echinoidea. III, 3. Camarodonta. II. Echinidæ, Strongylocentrotidæ, Parasaleniidæ, Echinometridæ, pp. 446. C. A. Reitzel; Copenhagen.
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© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

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