The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association. "Green Urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis" (On-line). Accessed September 04, 2003 at
  • Banister, D., D. Campbell. 1985. The Encyclopedia of Aquatic Life. New York, N.Y.: Facts on File.
  • Chen, Y., Hunter, M., Vadas, R., & Beal, B. (2003). Developing a growth-transition matrix for the stock assessment of the green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) off Maine. Fishery Bulletin, 101(4), 737-744.
  • Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., (1996). A student's guide to the seashore. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. External link.
  • Friedrich, H. 1969. Marine Biology. United States: University of Washington Press.
  • Grzimek, B. 1972. Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia: Volume 3- Mollusks and Echinoderms. New York: Van Nostand Reinhold Company.
  • Hailey, N., (1995). Likely impacts of oil and gas activities on the marine environment and integration of environmental considerations in licensing policy. English Nature Research Report, no 145., Peterborough: English Nature. External link.
  • Hayward, P., Nelson-Smith, T. & Shields, C., (1996). Collins pocket guide. Sea shore of Britain and northern Europe. London: HarperCollins. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (ed.), (1995b). Handbook of the marine fauna of North-West Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Hayward, P.J.; Ryland, J.S. (Ed.). (1990). The marine fauna of the British Isles and North-West Europe: 1. Introduction and protozoans to arthropods. Clarendon Press: Oxford, UK. ISBN 0-19-857356-1. 627 pp.
  • Howson, C.M. & Picton, B.E. (ed.), (1997). The species directory of the marine fauna and flora of the British Isles and surrounding seas. Belfast: Ulster Museum. [Ulster Museum publication, no. 276.] External link.
  • Hubbell, S. 1999. Waiting for Aphrodite. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
  • Kozloff, Eugene N. 1987. Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. 511
  • Kroh A. & Mooi R. (2015). WoRMS Echinoidea: World Echinoidea Database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Kroh, A.; Hansson, H. (2012). Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (O.F. Müller, 1776). In: Kroh, A. & Mooi, R. (2016). World Echinoidea Database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Mortensen, T.H., (1927). Handbook of the echinoderms of the British Isles. London: Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press. External link.
  • Norderhaug, K. M., & Christie, H. C. (2009). Sea urchin grazing and kelp re-vegetation in the NE Atlantic. Marine Biology Research, 5, 515-528. doi:10.1080/17451000902932985
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Roessler, C. 1977. Underwater Wilderness. New York: Chanticleer Press.
  • Russel, D. "Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis. Northern sea urchin" (On-line). Marine Life Information Network: Biology and Sensitivity Key Information Sub-programme, Plymouth: Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Accessed July 15, 2004 at
  • Smith, A. 2000. "The Natural History Museum: The Echinoids" (On-line). Accessed May 20, 2003 at
  • Southward, E.C.; Campbell, A.C. (2006). [Echinoderms: keys and notes for the identification of British species]. Synopses of the British fauna (new series), 56. Field Studies Council: Shrewsbury, UK. ISBN 1-85153-269-2. 272 pp.
  • Steneck, R. S., Graham, M. H., Bourque, B. J., Corbett, D., Erlandson, J. M., Estes, J. A., & Tegner, M. J. (2002). Kelp forest ecosystems: biodiversity, stability, resilience and future. Environmental Conservation, 29(4), 436-459. doi:10.1017/S0376892902000322
  • Thurman, H., H. Webber. 1984. Marine Biology. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Publishing Company.
  • Tjärnö Marine Biological Laboratory, 2000. "Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis" (On-line). Aquascope. Accessed September 04, 2003 at
  • Valiela, I. 1995. Marine Ecological Processes. New York: Springer-Verlag New York, Inc..


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