Overview

Distribution

In Panama this species has been collected from in the Caribbean from:

-Galeta Island (USNM E 25674, USNM E 25715)

-Sail Rock, Colon (USNM E 18779)

-Devils Beach, Fort Sherman, Limon Bay (USNM E 25694)

-Portobelo (USNM E 11407)

-Portobelo, first cove southwest of Buenaventura (USNM E 18813)

-North of Maria Soto River (USNM 1011262, USNM 1011258; Centroid Latitude: 9.5267, Centroid Longitude: -79.6667, depth < 1 m)

-1.5 miles southwest of the mouth of Guanche River (USNM E 18798)

-3.5 miles North of the Piedras River (USNM E 18752)

-Bastimentos, Bocas del Toro (USNM E 36313)

-Miria Island, San Blas (USNM E 25767)

-Pico Feo Island, San Blas (USNM E 18784, USNM E 25766)

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Source: The Echinoderms of Panama

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Synonymised taxa

Echinometra plana A. Agassiz, 1863 (subjective junior synonym)
Ellipsechinus viridis (A. Agassiz, 1863) (unaccepted combination)

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References and links

Mortensen, T. (1943). A monograph of the Echinoidea 3(3). Camarodonta 2. Copenhagen. 446 pp., 215 figures, 66 pls; pages: 368-373.

GenBank

The Echinoid Directory

World Echinoidea Database

LSID urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:422493
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 43 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 9 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.5 - 37
  Temperature range (°C): 26.301 - 27.802
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.214 - 1.244
  Salinity (PPS): 35.838 - 36.171
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.601
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.059 - 0.168
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.019 - 2.068

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.5 - 37

Temperature range (°C): 26.301 - 27.802

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.214 - 1.244

Salinity (PPS): 35.838 - 36.171

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.285 - 4.601

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.059 - 0.168

Silicate (umol/l): 1.019 - 2.068
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Echinometra viridis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

ANCCCG------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTCCAAAATCTATTCYGGTTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTGTACATTCTTATTTTACCGGGATTTGGAATGATTTCGCACGTGATCGCACACTATTCRGGAAAGCGA---GAACCCTTYGGATACCTGGGAATGGTTTACGCCATGATAGCAATCGGAGTCCTAGGGTTCCTTGTGTGAGCCCACCACATGTTCACAGTAGGAATGGACGTAGACACACGAGCATACTTTACTGCCGCCACAATGATAATCGCCGTTCCAACAGGAATTAAGGTATTCAGCTGAATG---GCAACCCTTCAAGGATCA---AATCTTCAATGAGAAACCCCTCTTTTCTGAGCTCTCGGATTTGTATTCTTATTTACACTAGGAGGACTCACAGGAATCGTCCTAGCCAACTCCTCTATTGATGTCGTGCTACATGACACCTACTATGTAGTTGCCCACTTCCACTACGTA---CTATCAATGGGAGCCGTCTTCGCCATTTTTGCCGGGTTTACACACTGATTTCCTCTATTCTCCGGATACAACCTACACCCCTTATGAGGAAAGGTCCACTTCTTTATTATGTTCATCGGGGTCAACTTGACATTCTTCYCACAACACTTCCTAGGACTGGCC------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------GKA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Echinometra viridis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Echinometra viridis

Echinometra viridis, the reef urchin, is a species of sea urchin in the family Echinometridae. It is found on reefs in very shallow parts of the western Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

Description[edit]

The reef urchin has an elliptical reddish brown test (shell) covered with medium length spines. These are greenish in colour with paler bases and darker, often violet, tips. This urchin grows to a diameter of 5 centimetres (2.0 in) with the longest spines being 3 centimetres (1.2 in).[2] It looks very similar to the rock-boring urchin Echinometra lucunter, but the dark tips and the greater length of the spines are distinctive.[3]

Distribution[edit]

The reef urchin is found on reefs in the Caribbean Sea from southern Florida to Venezuela at depths down to about 15 metres (49 ft). It is not as common as the rock-boring urchin and seems to be absent from the West Indies to the east of the Virgin Islands.[3]

Biology[edit]

The reef urchin conceals itself in crevices or under boulders. It emerges at night to feed by grazing on algae with its five teeth, part of the Aristotle's lantern organ that surrounds its mouth.[4] It is not believed to bore holes, but its grazing still causes bioerosion in reefs.[5] In Panama, breeding takes place during the period April to December. It does not seem to be correlated with the phases of the moon as in some other sea urchin species.[6] Fertilisation is external and the echinopluteus larvae are planktonic. When these settle, they undergo a rapid metamorphosis into juvenile sea urchins.[4]

Researchers have studied the likely effect on the reef urchin of a rise in the carbon dioxide levels which are likely to increase ocean acidification by the end of the 21st century. It was found that the urchins would be negatively impacted because of decreased calcification, lowering their ability to build their tests, especially during winter and in the more northerly parts of their range.[7]

Ecology[edit]

The reef urchin is an important grazer on fleshy algae in the Caribbean area. Its abundance is reduced by predation by fish, especially the jolthead porgy (Calamus bajonado), the queen triggerfish (Balistes vetula), the ocean triggerfish (Canthidermis sufflamen) and the hogfish (Lachnolaimus maximus). Because of this predation, the reef urchin avoids open reef flats and in these locations there is an overgrowth of fleshy algae. It is unable to take over the algal controlling role of the black sea urchin (Diadema antillarum) which is subject to great fluctuations in population.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kroh, Andreas (2010). "Echinometra viridis A. Agassiz, 1863". In A. Kroh & R. Mooi. World Echinoidea Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-09-18. 
  2. ^ "Green urchin (Echinometra viridis)". Interactive Guide to Caribbean Diving. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  3. ^ a b Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. p. 422–423. ISBN 0-86622-875-6. 
  4. ^ a b Dorit, R. L.; Walker, W. F.; Barnes, R. D. (1991). Zoology. Saunders College Publishing. p. 788. ISBN 0-03-030504-7. 
  5. ^ Wisshak, Max; Leif Tapanila (2008). Current Developments in Bioerosion. Springer. p. 281. ISBN 3540775978. 
  6. ^ "Echinometra viridis A. Agassiz, 1863". Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  7. ^ Courtney, T., Westfield I. & Ries J. B. (2012). "Echinometra viridis exhibits seasonal response in calcification rates to predicted end of 21st century CO2-induced ocean acidification". Ocean acidification. EPOCA. Retrieved 2012-09-19. 
  8. ^ McClanahan, T. R. (1999). "Predation and the Control of the Sea Urchin Echinometra viridis and Fleshy Algae in the Patch Reefs of Glovers Reef, Belize". Ecosystems 2 (6): 511–523. doi:10.1007/s100219900099. 
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