The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Abbott, I., J. Ogden, D. Abbott. 1974. Studies on the activity pattern, behavior, and food of the echinoid Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus). West Indies Laboratory, Fairleigh Dickinson University: Christiansted, St. Croix.
  • Almeida, D., A. Sole-Cava, I. Calderon. 2010. The sea urchin Echinometra lucunter as a refuge for the barber goby Elacatinus figaro. Arquivos do Museu Nacional, 68/1-2: 17-23.
  • Blevins, E., S. Johnsen. 2004. Spatial vision in the echinoid genus Echinometra. The Journal of Experimental Biology, 207: 4249-4253.
  • Bolton, T., T. Florence I.M.. 2002. Physical forces experienced by echinoid eggs in the oviduct during spawning: Comparison of the geminate pair Echinometra vanbrunti and Echinometra lucunter. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Volume 267, Issue 2: 123–137.
  • Calderon, E., C. Zilberberg, P. De Paiva. 2007. Porifera Research: Biodiversity, Innovation and Sustainability. Rio de Janeiro: Série Livros 28, Museu Nacional.
  • Charpin, F. 2012. "Florent's Guide to the Tropical Reefs" (On-line). Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Collin, R., M. Diaz, J. Norenburg, R. Rocha, J. Sanchez, A. Schulz, M. Schwartz, A. Valdes. 2005. Photographic identification guide to some common marine invertebrates of Bocas Del Toro, Panama. Caribbean Journal of Science, Volume 41: 638-707.
  • Conway, C., A. Conway, D. Igelsrud. 1984. Sea Urchin Development. Pp. 53-89 in C Harris, ed. Tested studies for laboratory teaching. Proceedings of the third workshop/conference of the Association for Biology Laboratory Education (ABLE).. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. Accessed May 25, 2012 at
  • Ebert, T., M. Russell, G. Gamba, A. Bodnar. 2008. Growth, survival, and longevity estimates for the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) in Bermuda. Bulletin of Marine Science, Volume 82, Number 3: 381–403.
  • Furman, B., K. Heck, Jr.. 2009. Differential impacts of echinoid grazers on coral recruitment. Bulletin of Marine Science, 121–132, 2009, 85/2: 121-132.
  • Grünbaum, H., J. Ogden, D. Abbott, G. Bergman. 1978. Intraspecific agonistic behavior in the rock-boring sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (L.) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Bulletin of Marine Science, 28/1: 181-188.
  • IUCN, 2012. "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1" (On-line). Accessed August 25, 2012 at
  • Jackson, R. 1912. Phylogeny of the Echini: with a revision of Palaeozoic species, Volume VII. Boston: The Society.
  • Kroh, A. 2012. "
    Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758)
    " (On-line). World Echinoidea Database. Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Lawrence, J., J. Kafri. 1979. Numbers, biomass, and caloric content of the echinoderm fauna of the rocky shores of Barbados. Marine Biology, Vol. 52 (1): 87-91.
  • Lewis, J., G. Storey. 1984. Morphology and life history of Echinometra from different habitats. Marine Ecology Progress Series, Vol. 15: 207-211.
  • Lima, E., P. Gomes, J. Sousa. 2009. Reproductive biology of Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in a northeast Brazilian sandstone reef. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, Volume 81(1): 51-59.
  • McPherson, B. 1969. Studies on the biology of the tropical sea urchins, Echinometra lucunter and Echinometra viridis. Bulletin of Marine Science, Volume 19(1): 194-213.
  • Morishita, V., R. Barreto. 2011. Black sea urchins evaluate predation risk using chemical signals from a predator and injured con- and heterospecific prey. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 435: 173-181.
  • Schoppe, S. 1991. Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus) (Echinoidea, Echinometridae) als Wirt einer komplexen Lebensgemeinschaft im Karibischen Meer. Helgoland Marine Research, 45/3: 373-379.
  • Sciana, J., B. Zychar, L. Gonçalves, T. Nogueira, R. Giorgi, D. Pimenta. 2010. Pro-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Echinometra lucunter sea urchin spines. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 236/3: 277-280. Accessed August 18, 2012 atçalves&sortspec=date&submit=Submit.
  • Torres, I., N. Ablanedo, H. Gonzalez, M. Ramirez. 1990. Evaluacion del erizo de mar Echinometra lucunter como indicador de contaminacion por metales pesados, Cuba. Aquatic Living Resources, 3: 113-120.
  • Waikiki Aquarium. 2009. "Marine Life Profile: Rock-boring sea urchins" (On-line). Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Weintraub, L. 2012. "Boca del Toro: Species Database" (On-line). Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Accessed August 18, 2012 at
  • Yerranilli, D., S. Johnsen. 2010. Spacial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea). Journal of Experimental Biology, 213: 249-255.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!