- Ludwig, H. (1899). Echinodermen des Sansibargebietes. Abhandl. d. Senckenb. naturf. Ges., Bonn, Vol. 21(1): 537 - 563. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=6130
- Bell, F.J. (1884). Echinodermata. In: R.W. Coppinger (ed): Report on the Zoological Collections made in the indo-pacific Ocean during the voyage of HMS Alert, 1881-2. London. http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=5938
- Bell, F. J. 1909. Report on the echinoderma (other than holothurians) collected by Mr. J. Stanley Gardiner in the western parts of the Indian Ocean. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London. 2nd Series: Zoology 13, 17-22. http://www.marinespecies.org/ophiuroidea/aphia.php?p=sourcedetails&id=6269
- Miloslavich P, Díaz JM, Klein E, Alvarado JJ, Díaz C, et al. (2010) Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11916. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011916 http://www.marinespecies.org/porifera/porifera.php?p=sourcedetails&id=145466
In Panama this species has been collected in the Caribbean from:
-Galeta Island, reef flat (USNM E 36320)
-Sail Rock, Colon (USNM E 18697)
-near the mouth of Fox River, Limon Bay (USNM E 4863)
-Devils Beach, Fort Sherman, Limon Bay (USNM E 18815, USNM E 18759)
-Margarita Island, Limon Bay (USNM E 4875
-Largo Remo Island, on reef in front of Droque Island (USNM E 52927; Centroid Latitude: 9.4000; Centroid Longitude: -79.8333)
-North of Maria Soto River (USNM 1011154; Centroid Latitude: 9.5267, Centroid Longitude: -79.6667, depth < 1 m)
-La Doncella, Del Padre Island (USNM 1011125; Centroid Latitude: 9.5800, Centroid Longitude: -79.6700, depth < 1 m)
-1.7 km west southwest of Portobelo on bay side of Cocoli Point (USNM 1017371; associated with rocks and coral)
-Portobelo, first cove southwest of Buenaventura (USNM E 18700; Centroid Latitude: 9.5278, Centroid Longitude: -79.6875, depth 0.2 m)
-Miria Island, San Blas (USNM E 25632, USNM E 18751)
-Pico Feo Island, San Blas (USNM E 18769)
References and links
Mortensen, T. (1943). A monograph of the Echinoidea 3(3). Camarodonta 2. Copenhagen. 446 pp., 215 figures, 66 pls; pages: 357-368.
Cidaris fenestrata Leske, 1778 (subjective junior synonym)
Cidaris lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758) (transferred to Echinometra)
Echinometra acufera Mellis, 1875 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinometra lobatus (Blainville, 1825) (subjective junior synonym)
Echinometra michelini L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinometra nigrina Girard, 1850 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinometra subangularis A. Agassiz, 1872-74 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus lobatus Blainville, 1825 (subjective junior synonym)
Echinus lucunter Linnaeus, 1758 (transferred to Echinometra)
Echinus maugei Blainville, 1825 (subjective junior synonym)
Ellipsechinus lobatus (Blainville, 1825) (subjective junior synonym)
Ellipsechinus subangularis (A. Agassiz, 1872-74) (subjective junior synonym)
Heliocidaris castelnaudi Hupé, 1858 (subjective junior synonym)
Heliocidaris mexicana L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846 (subjective junior synonym)
Toxocidaris mexicana (L. Agassiz & Desor, 1846) (subjective junior synonym)
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 3 - 3
Temperature range (°C): 25.868 - 25.868
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.115 - 0.115
Salinity (PPS): 35.984 - 35.984
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.672 - 4.672
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.136 - 0.136
Silicate (umol/l): 1.455 - 1.455
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Echinometra lucunter
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Barcode data: Echinometra lucunter
There are 6 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Echinometra lucunter has an elliptical rather than a round test (shell). It can grow to a diameter of about 8 centimetres (3.1 in) and grows larger at the extreme north and south ends of its range than it does in the centre. It has moderately short spines with wide bases and sharp tips. The colour of the test varies from black to deep brownish-red, often being more ruddy on its aboral (upper) surface than on its oral (lower) surface. The spines are usually black.
Distribution and habitat
Echinometra lucunter is common throughout the Caribbean Sea and also occurs in Florida, Bermuda and the South American coast as far south as Brazil. It occurs on shallow rocky areas and on coral reefs usually at depths of 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) or less but occasionally in deeper water down to about 45 metres (148 ft). It is sometimes found among seagrasses and often under rock slabs or broken coral especially in places with high water movement. It sometimes occurs in large numbers and causes considerable damage to coral reefs through its boring activities.
Echinometra lucunter uses the teeth that surround its mouth to grind away at the rock underneath it so as to make a hemispherical depression in which it takes refuge during the day. It emerges at night to graze on algae growing within a few centimetres (inches) of its home. It defends this hole against other sea urchins of its own species. The king helmet shell (Cassis tuberosa) feeds on it and several species of small goby conceal themselves underneath its test.
- Kroh, Andreas (2010). "Echinometra lucunter (Linnaeus, 1758)". In A. Kroh & R. Mooi. World Echinoidea Database. World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2012-09-18.
- Colin, Patrick L. (1978). Marine Invertebrates and Plants of the Living Reef. T.F.H. Publications. p. 419–422. ISBN 0-86622-875-6.
- "Rock-boring urchin (Echinometra lucunter)". Interactive Guide to Caribbean Diving. Marine Species Identification Portal. Retrieved 2012-09-18.